Early modern Europe is the period of European history between the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Industrial Revolution , roughly the late 15th century to the late 18th century. Historians variously mark the beginning of the early modern period with the invention of moveable type printing in the 1450s, the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, the end of the Wars of the Roses in 1487, the beginning of the High Renaissance in Italy in the 1490s, the end of the Reconquista and subsequent voyages of Christopher Columbus to the Americas in 1492, or the start of the Protestant Reformation in 1517. 1. What changed between 14 century to 1500s: - especially in Italy, there was a rise of population that almost doubled in numbers - there was an emergence of huge cities (some were republic, and there was a decrease of Dukedoms) such as Venice, Florence and Milan - This caused substantial migration from country to city, and increasing urbanization rate - Agrarian revolution with the idea of 3-crop rotation - Thus provided ground for developing commerce -New Humanist ideas including that of Petrarch, Erasmus, Thomas Moore - Petrarch was considered founder of Humanism, that he rediscovered Cicero’s letters. He also first developed the concept of “Dark Ages”, which was outstanding at the time that he associated the classical with his own modern day. Ideology: secular achievements did not necessarily preclude an authentic relationship with God. He argued that God had given humans their vast intellectual and creative potential to be used to their fullest. - Believed in the study of human thought and action. The impact of his writings was long-lasting because he shaped the nascent humanist movement and inspired later Renaissance humanist philosophers for the next 200 years. Also, a number of political, military, and religious leaders during the Renaissance were inculcated with the notion that their pursuit of personal fulfillment should be grounded in classical examples and philosophical contemplation. - Erasmus: classical scholar, wrote in pure Latin style, his contribution was that he prepared new Latin and Greek editions of the New Testament, which raised influential questions to be used in the Protestant Reformation - Critical of the abuses within the Catholic Church and called for reform, but he also emphasized a middle way with deep respect for traditional faith, piety and grace - The authority of Church was challenged: Martin Luther: started with Luther’s 95 theses, which began to criticize the sale of indulgences, that the Pope had no authority over purgatory and the Catholic doctrine of the merits of the saints had no foundation in the Bible.
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- Fall '11