Sep 28 Omens in the east Initial Impact: Road to the mainland, conquest of the Aztecs, New worlds, new problems Slow progress: Spain: 1492 Hispaniola Portugal: 1534 Brazil England: 1607 Jamestown France: 1608 Quebec Profits not obvious Long road to profit 1492-1519: focus on Hispaniola 1519-22: conquest of Aztecs, there could be a flourishing civilization 1534: Conquest of Incas 1500-154-: age of conquistadors 1550s: impact on old world Island living: 1496 Hispaniola, 1508 Puerto Rico, 1509 Jamaica, 1511 Cuba Arrives 1493 Fought in Granada 1504 Massacre of Tainos 1508 Conquers Puerto Rico 1509 Fights with Diego Columbus 1513 Florida Power struggles Culture of Conquest: Governors: C.Columbus, Bobadilla, Ovando, D.Columbus Bring men on the make Look for Gold and Profit Hernan Cortes Restless lawyer, arrive Hispaniola 1504 : notary with an encomienda (control of labor and Tainos) 1511 part of Conquest of Cuba 1517-1518: failed expeditions to mainland
Cortes turn: Feb 1519, 11 ships, 500 men, 15 horses View from Tenochtitlan 1325 founded, expanding empire, confederation of states, 1490s height, fragile power World of Tenochtitlan Center of Tribute System, 150,000 people, place of power, military society, religious center Mirror Images: military powers, religious impulse, expansive Cortes profress: Sails out Cuba, Checks out coast, Veracruz, April 1519 Scuttles Ships Role of Spanish Competition Want to be the first Spanish pre-cursors: 1511 Spanish Ship Wreck Sailors Taken by Mayans Gonzalo Guerrero Geronimo de Aguilar Translating Conquest: Geronimo de Aguilar He can translate meine to english (tie to Spanish identity) vs Gonzalo Guerrero (integrate with locals, became a war leader for the people) Dona Marina, La Malinche Nahautl to Mayan to Spanish LA Malinche: Among 20 slaves given to Cortes Languages Key Often joined with Cortes: Malintzin Cortes Mistress= Son Martin Married to Other Conquistador To Tenochtitlan: -> Cortes decided to Gather allies (with city states): Tlaxcalans and others: 75000 Cholula Massacre, Oct. 1519 Arrives at Tenochtitlan, Nov 8, 1519
Moctezuma Seized, Nov 14, 1519 Tensions Rise (Spanish met with Moctezuma) Fall of the Aztecs: Temple massacre, May 16, 1520 Moctezuma killed, June 29, 1520 Noche Trieste June 30, 1520 Small Pox: Oct 1520 Tenochtitlan Under Siege: May- Aug 1521 Falls Aug 13, 1521 Invisible bullets: Small pox, influenza, measles Kills 90% of population Destabilizes power Community shattered Affects agriculture and trade Opens door for conquest Necessary allies: Tlaxcalan Rights (at beginning, wanted to keep the indigenous power alive) Rai Have allies against Incans Integrate Elite: Women: Isabel Moctezuma, married to three separate elites Limpieza de sangre again Catholic system, who is the purest Old and New Same framework, new meaning Tribute to new ruler (the Spanish governor) Layered Cities: Tenochititlan= Mexico City Tensions Eat Similar Foods Food exchange between Europe and America: Americas get: sugar cane and coffee= plantations = slavery Large livestock= destruction of land
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