rocks and plate tectonics.docx

rocks and plate tectonics.docx - Crust 1 Lithosphere crust...

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Crust: 1. Lithosphere – crust, source of minerals, fossil fuels, and soils; silicon and oxygen are most abundant 2. a. Continental Crust – thicker, less dense (especially under mountains) b. Oceanic Crust – thinner, more dense 3. Moho – boundary between crust and mantle 4. Asthenosphere – convection currents allow flow of materials 5. a. Outer Core – liquid (molten) iron and nickel, melting point lower than actual temp b. Inner Core – solid iron and nickel, intense pressure prevents metal from melting Boundary Types: 1. Divergent Plate Boundary: -plates move away from each other -rifting=spreading -mid-ocean ridges, submerged volcano ranges (rising magma) along rift valleys Ex: Mid-Atlantic Ridge 2. Convergent Plate Boundary: -continent to continent collision -mountain formation Ex: Himalayas -oceanic crust to continent collision -subduction zone (trench) -dense ocean crust is forced underneath continent, shifts into mantle, and melts -forms coastlines, mountains, and volcanoes Ex: Andes Mountains -ocean to ocean crust collision -volcanic islands Ex: Aleutian Islands, Philippine Islands 3. Transform Plate Boundary: -plates shift side to side -pressure builds over time when plates are locked -slippase = energy release, earthquake Ex: San Andreas
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Events: -earthquakes -volcanoes -mountain building events -tsunamis – seismic activity energy transfer to water above creating large sea wave impact; flooding=loss of coastal habitat, saltwater intrusion, drowning of terrestrial species Mantle Hotspots: -places in Earth’s surface that magma rises up from mantle -crust moves over hotspot, magma pushes up to form volcanoes; active=over hotspot How is this environmental science? -Primary Succession – formation of new terrestrial environments -understanding biological evolution related to local climate change -speciation from geographic and reproductive isolation Rock Cycle: Compaction – compression of rock fragments Cementation – the “gluing” together of rock fragments (often by evaporation) Deposition – dropping of sediments by wind, water, ice Erosion – transportation of sediments by wind, water, ice
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