Geology Chapter 1 - Geology Chapter 1 Geologic Time I...

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Geology Chapter 1 Geologic Time I. Relative Dating and the Geologic Time Scale a. Relative Dating - events are placed in their proper sequence or order without knowing their age in years i. Done by applying law of superposition -layers on bottom of sedimentary rock are older than layers on top b. Fossils are basis for the principle of fossil succession-fossil organsims succeed one another in a definite and determinable order, and therefore any time period can be recognized by its fossil content II. The Magnitude of Geologic Time a. Geologists deal with vast time periods i. Earth is 4.5 billion years old The Nature of Scientific Inquiry I. Hypothesis a. A tenative untested explanation b. Must pass objective testing and analysis c. Can become a theory i. A widely accepted view agreed by scientific community ii. Theories extensively documented and comprehensive in scope are called paradigms
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Unformatted text preview: Earths Spheres I. Divided into three major parts a. Hydrosphere-water i. Global ocean=71% of earth’s surface, 97% of earth’s water b. Atmosphere-gaseous envelope i. Allows for life and processes c. Geosphere-solid earth i. Extends from surface to core of planet d. Also Biosphere interacts with all 3 i. Includes all life on earth e. Soil part of all 4 spheres Earth’s Crust- the thin, rocky outer kind of the earth-2 types • Oceanic and Continental o Oceanic crust denser and composed of basalt o Conitental less dense and varies in composition Earth’s Mantle- solid rocky shell-82% of the earth’s volume • Upper Mantle o Lithosphere o Asthenosphere o Transition Zone • Lower Mantle o D” layer Earth’s Core- primarily iron-nickel alloy-Extreme pressure and density • Outer Core • Inner Core...
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