anth41aMidterm.docx - Midterm/Anthro 41A The Orient...

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Midterm /Anthro. 41A The Orient Express - Explains the origins of civilization in a way that favors the WEST Civilization began in this trend 1. Mesopotamia/Babylionia 2. Persia - known for being civilized, like the Persian king, people wore nice clothing - Allowed Jews to return to Jerusalem to rebuild temple - Persian empire was tolerant when it came to religion - Defeated Babylonian 3. Greece 4 th century B.C. Alexander the Great 4. Rome (until 476 A.D.) - religion plays a big role - In the outer of eastern hemisphere 5. Renaissance in France and Italy then to England 6. European Colonization The European Miracle - Europeans had something innate and unique that made them superior to all other civilizations in terms of progress. - Democracy was found in Athens, peasants were better treated - Europeans were more religiously tolerant - Europeans were biologically superior - Claims something about Europe causes them to be better than any other civilization - Today, Mesopotamia is between Iran/Iraq (Used bronze---old form of metal) The Domestication of Plants and Animals started in MIDDLE EAST. Recognize that there are innovative people all around the world Domestication of Rice - Domesticated around 9,000 B.C. in (South)East Asia /China Domestication of Wheat/Barley - Domesticated around 9,000 B.C. in the Middle East and India Domestication of Cattle/Cow - Domesticated around 8,000 B.C. in the Middle East, India, and Eastern Africa Domestication of Yams - Domesticated around 9,000 B.C. in Eastern Africa Domestication of Corn - Domesticated around 9,000 B.C. in Meso-America
Domestication of Chicken - Domesticated around 6,000 B.C. in India and Southern East Asia Domestication of Bananas - Domesticated around 9,000 B.C. in New Guinea Cradles of Civilization - Mesopotamia---Iran, Iraq - Nile River Valley---Egypt - Indus River Valley---Pakistan, India - Yellow River Valley---China - Meso-America---Mexico, Guatemala Indus - Major ancient Indus Valley cities included Dholavira, Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. - To date, over 1000 ancient Indus Valley cities have been identified, but less than 10% have been excavated. - The city of Mehrgarh is thought to be one of the oldest cities in the Indus region dating to about10,000 years ago. - These ancient cities had running water, reservoirs, public baths and a writing system. - Many Indus Valley cities had ships and traded goods with Mesopotamian cities. - Many of these cities were abandoned when the Ghaggar-Hakra River (a.k.a. the Sarasvati River) began to dry up a few thousand years ago. contemporaries in the 6th-5th Century BC Xerxes---Persian’s ruler - Persian leader who made Zoroastrianism; the world’s oldest monotheistic religion - The national religion of the Persian Empire - Allowed freedom of religion in his empire Leonidas---King of Sparta during the Green and Persian conflict with Xerxes (Movie 300) Socrates ---Philosopher who taught the Socratic method in Athens (Greek) - Believed honor was more important than superficial attributes such as wealth - One of the founders of Western philosophy The Buddha---Indian/Nepal Philosopher, Siddhartha Gautama; founder of Buddhism

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