Geology Review for Test 1

Geology Review for Test 1 - Geology Review for Test 1...

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Geology Review for Test 1 Chapter 1 Catastrophism - concept that earth was formed by catastrophic events of a short-term nature Uniformitarianism -the concept that earth’s processes that have shaped Earth in the geologic past are essentially the same as those operating today James Hutton - founder of modern geology, put forth principle on uniformitarianism in Theory of the Earth Age of Earth - 4.5 billion years Oldest rocks on Earth - 4 .4, 3.8 Geologic Time Scale - the division of Earth history into blocks of time-eons, eras, periods, and epochs. Created using relative dating principles Crust - the very thin outermost layer of Earth Lithosphere - rigid outer layer of earth, including crust and upper mantle Asthenosphere - a subdivision of the mantle situated below the lithosphere, zone of weak material that exists at depths of 100km to 700 km. Easily deformed Mantle - one of earths compositional layers, solid rocky shell that extends from base of crust to 2900 km Mesosphere - part of mantle that extends from the core-mantle boundary to 660 km. Known as the lower mantle Outer core - layer beneath the mantle about 2270 km thick, properties of liquid Inner core - solid innermost layer of earth, about 1216 km in radius Key Questions How is Earth’s internal structure divided based on physical (solid vs. liquid) and chemical (composition) properties? Physical-Lithosphere- Asthenosphere, Mesosphere, Outer Core, Inner Core Chemical Composition-Crust, mantle, core Chapter 2 Divergent Boundary - two plates move apart, resulting in an upwelling of material from the mantle to create new seafloor Convergent - two plates move together, resulting in oceanic lithosphere being thrust beneath an overriding plate to be reabsorbed into the mantle. Two continental plates converge to from a mountain system Transform - a boundary in which two plates slide past one another without creating or destroying lithosphere Pangaea - proposed supercontinent that began to break apart 200 million years ago and form the present landmasses Laurasia - Northern point of Pangaea, consisting of North America and Eurasia Gondwana - southern point of Pangaea consisting of South America, Africa, Australia, India, and
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This note was uploaded on 11/15/2007 for the course GEOL 1010 taught by Professor Pranter,ma during the Fall '07 term at Colorado.

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Geology Review for Test 1 - Geology Review for Test 1...

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