Respiration Part I.pptx - LIFS1902 Respiration(I Dr Philip...

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LIFS1902 Respiration (I) Dr. Philip Lam
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Understand the structure and the major functions of the respiratory system Tracking the movement of gases in our bodies Appreciating the complexity of respiration and understand respiratory mechanism Understand different respiratory diseases Learning outcomes
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Understand the structure and the major functions of the respiratory system Tracking the movement of gases in our bodies Appreciating the complexity of respiration and understand respiratory mechanism Understand different respiratory diseases Learning outcomes
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The Respiratory System To allow oxygen from the air to enter the blood and cells To allow carbon dioxide from the cells and blood to exit into the air.
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The respiratory system works with the cardiovascular system to accomplish: 1. External respiration Exchange of gases (O 2 and CO 2 ) between air and the blood 2. Transport of gases to and from the lungs and the tissues 3. Internal respiration Exchange of gases (O 2 and CO 2 ) between blood and tissue fluid The Respiratory System
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A respiratory surface is a surface where there a respiration (exchange of gases take place). o a large surface area and be thin so that gas exchange can occur at a fast rate. o must be moist so that gases can dissolve first before diffusing across the surface. Gas exchange is fast when the surface area for diffusion is large and the path for diffusion is short o Respiratory surfaces tend to be large and thin o Earthworm skin is its respiratory organ. Respiratory Surfaces
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Respiratory Surfaces As organisms get bigger, the surface area to volume gets smaller most animals lack sufficient surface area to exchange gases for the whole organism Bacterium Amoeba Dog Organism Length SA (m 2 ) Vol. (m 3 ) SA/Vol Bacterium 1 m 6x 10 -12 10 -18 6,000,000:1 Amoeba 100 m 6x 10 -8 10 -12 60,000:1 Dog 1m 6x10 4 10 6 0.06:1
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Respiratory Surfaces Fishes use gills for gas exchange o Not as much oxygen in water as in air https:// 1:14
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Fish use gills for gas exchange o Packed with blood vessels o Exchange contents over very small distances o Countercurrent exchange Respiratory Surfaces
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By breathing in AIR rather than in water, we are in an environment 50 TIMES RICHER in O 2 and gas molecules diffuse 10,000 X faster. By breathing, we give our BODY FLUIDS to CONTINUOUSLY EXCHANGE of both O 2 and CO 2 with air. There are NO LONG-TERM STORAGE SITES for O 2 or CO 2 , within the body - they are not needed as long as this exchange between body fluids and air remains unrestricted. The Respiratory System 50X O 2 10,000X faster diffusion rate
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The Respiratory System: from aquatic to terrestrial Perhaps the biggest change is air-breathing!
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Gills to Lungs
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Protecting the gas exchange surface Easy! No problem with drying. Flow water across the gas exchange surface Aquatic Animals Land Animals To prevent drying, place gas exchange surfaces inside the body.
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Place our respiratory exchange surfaces inside our
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