Exam 2 Study Guide

Exam 2 Study Guide - Chapters4,5&6StudyGuide...

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Chapters 4, 5 & 6 Study Guide Variable   any event, situation, behavior, or individual  characteristic that varies Confounding variable   an uncontrolled 3 rd  variable that is operating Situational variables   describes characteristics of a situation or  environment (eg. length of words in a book; spatial density of a  classroom; # of bystanders to an emergency) Response variables   responses or behaviors of individuals (eg.  reaction time, performance on a test, helping a victim in an  emergency) Participant/Subject variables   individual differences;  characteristics of individuals (eg. gender, intelligence,  personality traits such as extraversion) Mediating variables   psychological processes that mediate the  effects of a situational variable on a particular response (eg. the  bystander effect: people are less likely to help in an emergency  when there are more bystanders because responsibility is  diffused) Operational definition   a definition of a variable in terms of  operations or techniques the researcher uses to measure or  manipulate it; allows empirical study; forces scientists to look  at abstract concepts Positive linear relationship   increases in one variable are  accompanied by increases in values of the second variable; graph  rises from left to right
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Negative linear relationship   increases in the values of one variable  are accompanied by decreases in values of the second variable;  graph falls from left to right Curvilinear relationship   increases in values of one variable are  accompanied by both increases and decreases in values of the  second variable; also known as a nonmonotomic function; graph  rises, then falls from left to right (or vice versa); EG: eating  candy, drinking alcohol, complex visual stimuli No relationship  increases in values of one variable are not related  to increases or decreases in values of the second variable; graph 
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