Chapter 4 outline

Chapter 4 outline - variable o o o o situational variables...

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Chapter 4: Studying Behavior I. Variables variable = any event, situation, behavior, or individual characteristic that varies; example = cognitive task performance, word length, spatial density, intelligence, gender, reaction time, rate of forgetting, aggression, speaker credibility, attitude represents a general class within which specific instances will vary called levels or values of the variable; must have 2 or more levels or values some variables have true numeric, or quantitative properties (50 question cognitive test); others are not numeric, but simply identify different categories (gender) classified into 4 categories o situational variables describe characteristics of a situation or environment: the length of words in a book, the spatial density of a classroom, the credibility of a person trying to persuade you, the number of bystanders to an emergency o response variables responses or behaviors of individuals, such as reaction time, performance on a cognitive test, & helping a victim in an emergency o participant/subject variables individual differences; characteristics of individuals, including gender, intelligence, & personality traits such as extraversion o mediating variables psychological processes that mediate the effects of a situational variable on a particular response Darley & Latane found that helping is less likely when there are more bystanders to an emergency = diffusion of responsibility II. Operational Definitions of Variables operational definition a definition of a variable in terms of the operations or techniques the researcher uses to measure or manipulate it must be operational defined to be studied empirically different levels of abstraction (word length vs. stress)
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Chapter 4 outline - variable o o o o situational variables...

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