Objectives E - ID.docx - ID I Principles of Antimicrobial Therapy A Give a working definition of narrow extended and broad-spectrum antibiotics and

Objectives E - ID.docx - ID I Principles of Antimicrobial...

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ID I Principles of Antimicrobial Therapy A.Give a working definition of narrow-, extended- and broad-spectrum antibiotics and state when one or the other would be preferred as a therapeutic approach and why.B.Understand definitions:a.Antibiotic resistanceb.Bactericidal drugsc.Bacteriostatic drugsd.Empiric therapye.Prophylatic therapy f.SuperinfectionC.Explain the fundamental difference between bactericidal and bacteriostatic drugs and state the host-related factors required for successful therapy with a bacteriostatic agent.D.Describe why and when to use empirical therapy or prophylactic therapy.E.Discuss the general rationales and need for using antibiotics in combination, as well as situations in which antibiotic combinations should be avoided. Cell Wall Inhibitors $-$$A.Describe the basic mechanism of action of the penicillins.B.Describe the beta-lactam ring. Also, explain why penicillins are part of the family of antibiotics called the beta-lactam antibiotics and state how that relates to the vulnerability of these antibiotic classes to inactivation by certain bacteria.C.State the four main generations of penicillins. Also, for each group identify the prototype and indicate the bacterial types or strains that typically respond to them.D.Given a patient’s history of severe hypersensitivity reactions to penicillin, state at least one other group of antibiotics that should not be administered because of the risk of cross-reactivity.E.Recognize clavulanic acid (or sulbactam or tazobactam) as penicillinase inhibitors that are combined with certain broad- or extended-spectrum penicillins, that they lack intrinsic toxicity and antibiotic effects, and that they do nothing to reduce the risk or severity of hypersensitivity reactions in susceptible patients.F.Identify a prototype or representative example for each of the four generations of cephalosporins and differentiate the groups in terms of mechanism of action, spectrum
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