April 7th - 07/04/200813:05:00

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07/04/2008 13:05:00 Question: Which of the following is most true of the sliding filament theory of  muscle contraction? Answer: Sarcomere shortening has nothing to do with the length of the thin  and thick filaments Muscle Contraction Cycle of interactions between myosin and actin Why doesn’t this happen constantly? Calcium ions initiate contraction Contraction inhibited unless calcium ions present Troponin and tropomyosin o Troponin-tropomyosin complex o Associate with actin and block myosin binding Calcium changes etroponin-tropomyosin complex so that myosin binding sites  are available Question: Where are calcium ions stored in a muscle cell? Sarcoplasmic reticulum Nerves Stimulate Muscle Contraction Nerve impulses from motor neurons lead to release of calcium ions Neuromuscular junction o Junction between motor neuron and skeletal muscle cell o Acetylcholine released from motor neuron Question: Which of the following will happen next? o Calcium ions will bind to troponin Strength of Muscle Contraction Number of motor units stimulated o Motor unit: Motor neuron and all the muscle cells it stimulates All the muscle cells in a given motor unit contract together Frequency of stimulation
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07/04/2008 13:05:00 Plasma    
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The straw colored liquid portion of blood Makes up about 55% Plasma: Structure     90% Water 10% Dissolved materials Nutrients, gases, hormones, ions Plasma proteins o Albumins Water balance Osmosis (Diffusion of water – high to low concentration of  water) Proteins found in the plasma are solutes Determine the direction of water movement (water move into the  blood) o Globulins Hydrophobic Steroid Lipids Ganaglobulins Antibodies o Clotting proteins
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Will function in blood clotting Formed Elements Cellular components of blood o Red blood cells o White blood cells o Platelets All arise from stem cells Question: Where do we find blood cell stem cells? o Answer: Red bone marrow Which of the formed elements are true cells? o Answer: White blood cells (needs to have a nucleus – DNA   Making  proteins) Red Blood Cells     Erythrocytes Most numerous cells in blood 44% of whole blood Function
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o Transport oxygen o Transport carbon dioxide Structure o Small, flattened cells indented on each side o Lack nucleus and organelles o Packed with hemoglobin Life Cycle o Maturation o Circulation o Removal o Regulation of red blood cell production Negative feedback Hypoxia Erythropoietin (EPO) Anemia    
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April 7th - 07/04/200813:05:00

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