Bio Notes Review For Exam 3

Bio Notes Review For Exam 3 - Bio Notes Review For Exam 3 -...

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Bio Notes Review For Exam 3 - The Skeletal System - Compromises 3 types of connective tissue -Bones -Ligaments -dense connective tissue -join bone to bone -Cartilage - specialized connective tissue -Bone Structure - Specialized connective tissue - Most of the mass of bones consist of non living cellular matrix (hard part) - Contain several types of living bones cells, nerves and blood vessels - Most contain both compact and spongy tissue -Compact Bone -Dense bone with few internal spaces -Hard outer layer of bone -Osteon - Repeating structural unit of compact bone, concentric rings of osteoctyes surrounding a central canal -Osteocytes - Mature bone cells - trapped in lacurial(cavity) within hardened matrix - connected to one another via membrane extensions -Spongy Bone -Latticework of thin struts of bone with open areas between -braces bone from within -Periosteum -touch connective tissue layer that covers compact bone -contains -blood vessels -nerves -bone cells that function in growth and repair -Bone Development -Skeleton is first formed of cartilage -ossification: replacement of cartilage by bone -Osteoblasts- will mature into an osteocyte -bone forming cells- secrete matrix components -Growth Plate - strip of cartilage cells that separates end of bone from shaft -bone lengthening - Hormones regulate bone growth -growth hormone -thyroid hormone -sex hormone -Bone remodeling - Bone is dynamic tissue that undergoes constant replacement, remodeling and repair -bone deposition and absorption -osteoblasts deposit bone -osteoclasts: breaks down the bone -Stress
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-Hormone regulation -Parathyroid hormone - parathyroid gland -calcitonin -thyroid gland -Osteoperosis -progressive loss of bone mass -Multistep repair of bone fractures - Fibroblasts(secrete collagen) – Chloroblasts (cartilage cells) -Osteoblasts -clot (hematoma) (at sight break) -cartilaginous cells -bony callus -The human skeleton -206 bones and connective tissues that hold them together -4 types of bones based on shape -long bones -short bones -flat bones -irregular bones -Divided into two main parts -Axial-main axes of body or its core -Appendicular-anything that sticks out The Muscular System Functions -Produces Movement -maintains posture -produces heat 3 types of muscles -skeletal (75%) - cardiac -smooth Skeletal (nuclei) and cardiac are both striated -Muscle Characteristics (all muscle) - excitable: respond to stimuli -contractile: have the ability to shorten -extensible: have the ability to stretch -elastic: return to original length Skeletal Muscle -muscles responsible for moving body -interact with skeleton and cause bones to move relative to each other -more than 600 Somatic nervous system controls skeletal muscles Skeletal Muscle -attached to bones by tendons -muscle origin -end of muscle attached to the bone that remains relatively stationary during movement -proximal is closest to middle of body
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-muscle insertion -end of muscle attached to the bone that moves - distal is further from the midline -most skeletal muscles work in pairs or groups -synergistic muscles: work together to create the same movements
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This note was uploaded on 04/22/2009 for the course BIO 309D taught by Professor Jessicawandelt during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Bio Notes Review For Exam 3 - Bio Notes Review For Exam 3 -...

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