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Book Notes 3 - Chapter 8 Assessment Measurement of...

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Chapter 8: Assessment: Measurement of Intelligence (pgs. 189-208) 02:04 General Definition of Intelligence Hypothetical construct A concept that exists only in the way that we choose to define it. Can only observe the consequences of intelligence reflected in behavior and performance of individuals. Intelligence tests – an attempt to operationalize or make observable a concept that is not observable. o Represent the concept of intelligence Genotypic Intelligence – Differ in the degree to which they view intelligence as the innate capacity of individuals Phenotypic Intelligence – How individuals currently perform Spearman: o Intelligence is characterized by a single general factor (g) that governs all aspects of intellectual functioning. Specific Definitions of Intelligence Binet and Simon (1916) Judgment, otherwise called good sense, practical sense, initiative, the faculty to adapt one’s self to circumstances. To judge well, to comprehend well, to reason well, these are the essential activities of intelligence. Gardner (1983) A set of skills of problem solving—enabling the individual to resolve genuine problems or difficulties that he or she encounters, and, when appropriate, to create an effective product… the potential for finding or creating problems— thereby laying the groundwork for the acquisition of new knowledge. Sternberg (1990) Mental activity involved in purposive adaptation to, shaping of, and selection of real-world environments relevant to one’s life. Wechsler (1939) The aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively with the environment. 2 Broad types of intelligence: o Fluid Intelligence – Includes nonverbal, relatively culture-free mental skills. Capacity to adapt to new situations; represented in basic mental operations and processes. o Crystalized Intelligence – Skills and knowledge acquired through interactions that are specific to one’s culture.
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Cognitive skills that are acquired through repeated exposure and practice; reflected in the products and achievements of intellectual activity. Distinction between verbal intelligence and performance intelligence (parallels fluid/crystallized.) Theoretical Models: Metaphors of the Mind Metaphors of the mind – underlie current models of intelligence; current tests of intelligence. 7 Modern Metaphors for Intelligence: o Geographic Metaphor – The idea that a theory of intelligence provides a map of the mind. Reflected in many of the dominant theories of intelligence Factor analyses – the performance of individuals on intelligence tests. Show scores on tests that reflect that acquisition of knowledge within one’s culture are highly correlated with one another o Computational Metaphor – The brain is seen as analogous to a computer.
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