Courtney_Review_2 - Chapter 9: Foundations of Group...

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Chapter 9: Foundations of Group Behavior DEFINING AND CLASSIFYING GROUPS Group: two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives o Formal group: a designated work group defined by the organization’s structure Command group: a group composed of the individuals who report directly to a given manager Task group: those working together to complete a job task o Informal group: a group that is neither formally structured nor organizationally determined; appears in response to the need for social contact – satisfy social needs, affect behavior and performance Interest group: those working together to attain a specific objective with which each is concerned Friendship group: those brought together because they share one or more common characteristics Reasons why people join groups o Security – stronger, fewer self-doubts, more resistant to threats o Status – inclusion in a group viewed as important by others provides recognition and status for members o Self-esteem – increased feelings of self-worth o Affiliation – fulfill social needs, regular interaction o Power – what cannot be achieved individually becomes possible through group action o Goal achievement – takes more than one person to accomplish particular task, pool talents, knowledge STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT The Five-Stage Model Five-stage group-development model: the five distinct stages groups go through: forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning o Forming stage: the first stage in group development, characterized by much uncertainty, “testing the waters” to determine acceptable behavior, completed when members think of themselves as part of a group o Storming stage: the second stage in group development, characterized by intragroup conflict, members accept the existence of the group, but there is resistance to the constraints that the group imposes on individuality, conflict over who will control the group – when this stage is complete there will be relatively clear hierarchy of leadership within the group o Norming stage: the third stage in group development, characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness, complete when group structure solidifies and the group has assimilated a common set of expectations of what defines correct member behavior o Performing: the fourth stage in group development, when the group is fully functional o Adjourning stage: the final stage in group development for temporary groups, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than task performance Group becomes more effective as it progresses through the first four stages Under some conditions, high levels of conflict may be conducive to high group performance Groups do not always proceed clearly from one stage to the next – sometimes several stages go on simultaneously, sometimes groups regress to previous stages An Alternative Model: For Temporary Groups with Deadlines
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This note was uploaded on 04/22/2009 for the course MKT 320F taught by Professor Miller during the Fall '08 term at University of Texas.

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Courtney_Review_2 - Chapter 9: Foundations of Group...

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