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Exam 3 Cheat Sheet - Power and Politics Power a capacity...

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Power and Politics – Power a capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes. Dependency – B’s relationship to A when A possesses something that B requires. Authority – The right to ask another to comply. Leadership – Focuses on goal achievement, requires goal compatibility with followers, focuses influence downward. Research Focus – Leadership styles and relationships with followers. Power – used as a means for achieving goals, requires follower dependency, used to gain lateral and upward influence. Research Focus – Power tactics for gaining compliance. Bases of Power: Formal power – Is established by an individuals position in an organization; conveys the ability to coerce or reward, from formal authority, or from control of information. Coercive Power – A power base dependent on fear. Reward power – Compliance achieved based on the ability to distribute rewards that others view as valuable. Legitimate power – The power a person receives as a result of his or her position in the formal hierarchy of an organization. Expert Power – Influence based on special skills or knowledge. Referent Power – Influence based on possession by an individual of desirable resources or personal traits. Expert and referent power – positively related to employees satisfaction. Coercive power can backfire- negatively related to employee satisfaction and commitment. Example: Steve Stout’s company, Translation: using pop stars to market products work bc of referent power The general dependency Postulate – The greater B’s dependency on A, the greater the Power A has over B, Possession/Control of scarce organizational resources that others need makes a manager powerful, Access to optional resources reduces the resource holder’s power. What creates dependency – Importance of the resource to the organization, Scarcity of the resource, Nonsubstitutability of the resource. Power variable substitutes for a resource, the more power the control over that resource provides. Power Tactics are ways in which individuals translate power bases into specific actions. Nine distinct influence tactics: legitimacy, rational persuasion (effective across all organizational levels), inspirational appeals (downward influencing tactic), consultation (lateral), exchange, personal appeals (lateral influence), ingratiation, pressure (least effective), & coalitions ( preferred by the Chinese).Influence Tactics: Upward/Downward/Lateral influence – Rational persuasion. Rational persuasion, inspirational appeals Sequencing of tactics – Softer to harder tactics work best. Managers in China, Taiwan, Hong Kong think rational persuasion is the most effective managers in Taiwan use inspirational appeals and ingratiation more than managers from china or Hong Kong. Hong Kong rate pressure in more effective in influencing others than do mangers in Taiwan or china. Skillful use of a tactic. Relative power of the tactic user – Some tactics work better when applied downward or upward.
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