Power and Politics –
a capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B so that B acts in accordance with
B’s relationship to A when A possesses something that B requires.
The right to
ask another to comply.
Focuses on goal achievement, requires goal compatibility with followers, focuses
Research Focus –
Leadership styles and relationships with followers.
used as a means
for achieving goals, requires follower dependency, used to gain lateral and upward influence.
Research Focus –
tactics for gaining compliance.
Bases of Power: Formal power –
Is established by an individuals position in an
organization; conveys the ability to coerce or reward, from formal authority, or from control of information.
A power base dependent on fear.
Reward power –
Compliance achieved based on the ability to distribute
rewards that others view as valuable.
Legitimate power –
The power a person receives as a result of his or her position
in the formal hierarchy of an organization.
Expert Power –
Influence based on special skills or knowledge.
Influence based on possession by an individual of desirable resources or personal traits.
Expert and referent
power – positively related to employees satisfaction. Coercive power can backfire- negatively related to
employee satisfaction and commitment. Example: Steve Stout’s company, Translation: using pop stars to
market products work bc of referent power The general dependency Postulate –
The greater B’s dependency on
A, the greater the Power A has over B, Possession/Control of scarce organizational resources that others need makes a
manager powerful, Access to optional resources reduces the resource holder’s power.
What creates dependency –
of the resource to the organization,
Scarcity of the resource,
of the resource.
variable substitutes for a resource, the more power the control over that resource provides. Power Tactics are
ways in which individuals translate power bases into specific actions. Nine distinct influence tactics: legitimacy,
rational persuasion (effective across all organizational levels), inspirational appeals (downward influencing
tactic), consultation (lateral), exchange, personal appeals (lateral influence), ingratiation, pressure (least
effective), & coalitions ( preferred by the Chinese).Influence Tactics:
Upward/Downward/Lateral influence –
Rational persuasion, inspirational appeals
Sequencing of tactics –
Softer to harder tactics work
best. Managers in China, Taiwan, Hong Kong think rational persuasion is the most effective managers in Taiwan use
more than managers from china or Hong Kong. Hong Kong rate pressure in
more effective in influencing others than do mangers in Taiwan or china.
Skillful use of a tactic. Relative power of