ManagementBOOK - CH. 4 Personality & Values...

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CH. 4 Personality —The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to & interacts with others. (Measurable traits a person exhibits). Personality Determinants: 1. Heredity: The factors that were determined at birth. 2. Environmental Factors : Could be the culture in which we are raised; the norms among our family, friends, and social groups. o Culture establishes the norms, attitudes, and values that are passed along form one generation to the next & create consistencies over time. 3. Situations: EX. Church or an employment interview constrains many behaviors and a picnic in a park constrains few behaviors. o Different demands of different situations call forth different aspects of one’s personality. Personality Traits: Characteristics that describe an individual’s behavior. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)— the most widely used personality-assessment instrument in the world. This is a personality type that taps 4 characteristics & classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types. o People are classified as (Extraverted//Introverted) (Sensing//Intuitive) (Thinking//Feeling) (Judging//Perceiving) o The score is a combination of all 4 (e.g., ENTJ) The Big Five Model : o Extraversion o Agreeableness (Cooperative, trusting, and warm). o Conscientiousness —Measures reliability. (Responsible, organized, dependable, & persistent). o Openness to Experience Measuring Personality: Personality is measured by: 1. Self-Report surveys —The most common way to measure personality. The problem is that the individual might lie. 2. Observer-ratings surveys 3. Projective measures : a. Rorschach Inkblot Test—The person states what the inkblots resemble. b. Thematic Apperception Test—A series of pictures on cards.
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Major Personality Attributes Influencing Organizational Behavior: Core Self-Evaluation —Degree to which individuals like or dislike themselves, whether they see themselves as capable & effective, and whether they feel they are in control of their environment or powerless over their environment. o Self-esteem —Individuals; degree of liking or disliking themselves and the degree to which they think they are worthy or unworthy as a person. o Locus of control —The degree to which people believe that they are masters of their own fate. Internals —People who believe that they control what happen to them. Externals —Individuals who believe that what happens to them is controlled by outside forces such as luck or chance. Machiavellianism —Degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, & believes that ends can justify means. o
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ManagementBOOK - CH. 4 Personality & Values...

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