Lecture Notes (2) - Chapter 7 Stress Psychophysiological...

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Chapter 7: Stress & Psychophysiological Disorders 14:59 Psychological Factors Affecting Medical Conditions Psychophysiological Disorders Psychophysiological disorder – Physical disorder that has a strong psychological basis or components o Not to be confused with conversion disorders (which have “no physical basis”) o Includes any stress-related physical illness, such as hypertension, headaches, asthma, IBS (irritable bowel syndrome)… Often require medical treatment and psychological treatment Actual physical disorders that come from a physiological disorders IBS – Involves direct lifestyle factors. Take SSRI’s (works on serotonin) Psychophysiological Disorders DSM-IV-TR criteria: o Temporal relationship between psychological factors and medical condition o Psychological factors interfere with treatment or exacerbate illness directly (Ex. Embarrassment of smoking stops one from seeking help for smokers cough) o Psychological factors create additional health-risk factors or exacerbate illness indirectly Out-dated People who are dealing with physical disorders have been stressed for along time before seeking help Influence Physical Processes in 3 ways: o 1. They can directly produce physiological changes in the immune system through the release of neurohormones or alter physical functioning. o 2. Psychological conditions such as depression can influence behaviors that affect health. o 3. An individual’s belief about the causes, symptoms, duration, and curability of the disease may determine whether the person seeks help and follows the treatment program.
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Biopsychosocial Model of Health Biopsychosocial model – Physical health and illness are determined by the complex interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors o Cognitive or emotional state influences the course or severity of a disease through an interaction of biological, behavioral, cognitive, and social pathways Health psychology – The study of how psychological factors influences health, illness, and health-related behavior Stress and Stressors Stress – An internal response to a stressor. A psychophysiological response to events that we perceive as taxing or challenging o Affects the immune system, heart function, hormone levels, nervous system, and metabolic rate Stressors – Stimuli or events that trigger efforts to cope; experiences perceived as harmful, threatening, or challenging o An external event or situation that places a physical or psychological demand on a person. o Three Kinds of Stressors: Biological Stressors – Infection, physical trauma, disease, malnutrition, and fatigue Psychological Stressors – Threats of physical harm, attacks on self-esteem, and guilt-inducing attacks on one’s belief system Social Stressors – Crowding, excessive noise, economic pressures, natural disasters, and war Stressors: Major Stressors & Life Events vs. Daily Hassles Major Stressors & Life Events o Life-changing or life-threatening events:
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