Week 5 - Organizations of the Human Body Tissues, Organs...

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Unformatted text preview: Organizations of the Human Body Tissues, Organs & Organ Systems 11/02/2008 14:12:00 ← Organizational Hierarchy: • Cells • Tissues • Organs • Organ Systems ← ← Tissues • Groups of similar cells that act in concert to perform a particular function • Cells in the tissue are held together by cell junctions (connections) and the other support structures • Four major types of tissue: o (1) Epithelial tissue Covers body surfaces Lines body cavities and organs Forms glands Structure: Composed of one or more layers of epithelial cells • Simple epithelium: one cell layer thick • Stratified epithelium: multiple cell layers thick Three cell shapes: • Squamous: flattened • Cuboidal: cube-shaped • Columnar: column-shaped Functions: Protection Regulates movement of substances in/out Secretes substances o (2) Connective tissue Most abundant and widely distributed Function Primarily to bind and support other tissues Diverse structures and functions Composed of cells scattered in an extracellular matrix (defined below) Structure Types of Connective Tissue: Loose (Areolar) connective tissue • Gelatinous matrix with few, loosely woven protein fibers • Soft and supportive • Widely distributed; found under skin, around organs, between muscles • Wraps and cushions organs Dense connective tissue • Found in tendons and ligaments • Forms strong bands that attach bone to muscle or bone to bone Specialized connective tissue o Muscle tissue Responsible for movement of the organism and of substances through the organism Composed of long, thin cells (muscle fibers) that are capable of contracting when stimulated Three types of muscle: Skeletal muscle • Long cylindrical striated cells with many nuclei • Voluntary contraction • Most are found attached to the skeleton • Responsible for voluntary movement Cardiac muscle • Branching striated cells, one nucleus • Involuntary contraction • Found in wall of heart • Pumps blood through the body • Connected by gap junctions Smooth muscle • Cells tapered at each end, one nucleus • Involuntary contraction • Found in walls of hollow internal organs, such as the intestines, and tubes, such as blood vessels •...
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This note was uploaded on 04/22/2009 for the course BIO 309D taught by Professor Jessicawandelt during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Week 5 - Organizations of the Human Body Tissues, Organs...

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