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Exam 3 Review - Chapter 5(pages 86-92 The Skeletal System...

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Chapter 5 (pages 86-92) 01/05/2008 17:44:00 The Skeletal System: Skeleton Structure The human skeleton is split into 2 Parts: Axial skeleton Appendicular skeleton Axial skeleton Protects our internal organs 80 bones Skull Rib Cage o Vertebral column o Ribs and Sternum Skull Cranial bones o Surround and protect the brain and sensory organs Facial bones o Front of skull o Support sensory structures
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o From the underlying structure of the face o Support teeth Vertebral column Supports head Protects spinal cord Column of 33 irregular vertebrae o Cervical - 7 o Thoracic - 12 o Lumbar - 5 o Sacrum – (5 fused) o Coccyx – (4 fused) Intervertebral disks o Cartilaginous pads between vertebrae o Absorb shock o Permit flexibility Ribcage Ribs, sternum, and vertebral column Surround and shield heart and lungs
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Ribs 12 pairs Attach at back to the thoracic vertebrae Top 10 pairs attach to sternum at front Sternum Breastbone Flat blade-shaped bone Appendicular Skeleton Pectoral girdle (shoulders) Pelvic girdle (pelvis) Limbs (arms and legs) Pectoral Girdle (Shoulders) Supportive frame for the upper limbs Arm o Collarbones (clavicles) o Shoulder blades (scapulae) o Humerus (Upper arm bones)
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o Ulna (forearm bone) o Radius (forearm bone) o Carpal (wrist bones) o Metacarpal (palm bones) o Phalanges (thumb finger bones) Pelvic Girdle (pelvis) More rigid than pectoral girdle Pelvic (coxal) bones Leg o Femur (thigh bone) o Patella (knee cap) o Tibia (lower leg bone) o Fibula (lower leg bone) o Tarsals (ankle bone) o Metatarsals (sole bones) o Phalanges (toe bones) Joints Juncture between bones
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Classified based on components and structure o Fibrous o Cartilaginous o Synovial Fibrous Joints Immovable o Do not permit movement No joint cavity Held together by fibrous connective tissue Sutures o Joints between skull bones Cartilaginous Joints Allow very little movement (slightly movable) Bones connected by cartilage Vertebral column Ribs and sternum Synovial Joints Most joints
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Freely movable Joint that allows the most movement Bones separated by thin fluid-filled cavity Cavity surrounded by two-layered joint capsule o Synovial membrane o Cartilage Joint reinforced by ligaments Types of synovial joints: o Hinge joint o Ball-and-socket joint Hinge joint Allows movement in one place Knee, elbow Ball-and-socket joint Permits wider range of movement in all planes Rounded head of one bone fits into socket of another Shoulder, hip
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Chapter 6 (pages 98-106) 01/05/2008 17:44:00 The Muscular System
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