Exam 3 Review - Chapter 5 (pages 86-92) 01/05/2008 17:44:00...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 5 (pages 86-92) 01/05/2008 17:44:00 The Skeletal System: Skeleton Structure The human skeleton is split into 2 Parts: Axial skeleton Appendicular skeleton Axial skeleton Protects our internal organs 80 bones Skull Rib Cage o Vertebral column o Ribs and Sternum Skull Cranial bones o Surround and protect the brain and sensory organs Facial bones o Front of skull o Support sensory structures o From the underlying structure of the face o Support teeth Vertebral column Supports head Protects spinal cord Column of 33 irregular vertebrae o Cervical - 7 o Thoracic - 12 o Lumbar - 5 o Sacrum (5 fused) o Coccyx (4 fused) Intervertebral disks o Cartilaginous pads between vertebrae o Absorb shock o Permit flexibility Ribcage Ribs, sternum, and vertebral column Surround and shield heart and lungs Ribs 12 pairs Attach at back to the thoracic vertebrae Top 10 pairs attach to sternum at front Sternum Breastbone Flat blade-shaped bone Appendicular Skeleton Pectoral girdle (shoulders) Pelvic girdle (pelvis) Limbs (arms and legs) Pectoral Girdle (Shoulders) Supportive frame for the upper limbs Arm o Collarbones (clavicles) o Shoulder blades (scapulae) o Humerus (Upper arm bones) o Ulna (forearm bone) o Radius (forearm bone) o Carpal (wrist bones) o Metacarpal (palm bones) o Phalanges (thumb finger bones) Pelvic Girdle (pelvis) More rigid than pectoral girdle Pelvic (coxal) bones Leg o Femur (thigh bone) o Patella (knee cap) o Tibia (lower leg bone) o Fibula (lower leg bone) o Tarsals (ankle bone) o Metatarsals (sole bones) o Phalanges (toe bones) Joints Juncture between bones Classified based on components and structure o Fibrous o Cartilaginous o Synovial Fibrous Joints Immovable o Do not permit movement No joint cavity Held together by fibrous connective tissue Sutures o Joints between skull bones Cartilaginous Joints Allow very little movement (slightly movable) Bones connected by cartilage Vertebral column Ribs and sternum Synovial Joints Most joints Freely movable Joint that allows the most movement Bones separated by thin fluid-filled cavity Cavity surrounded by two-layered joint capsule o Synovial membrane o Cartilage Joint reinforced by ligaments Types of synovial joints: o Hinge joint o Ball-and-socket joint Hinge joint Allows movement in one place Knee, elbow Ball-and-socket joint Permits wider range of movement in all planes Rounded head of one bone fits into socket of another Shoulder, hip Chapter 6 (pages 98-106) 01/05/2008 17:44:00...
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This note was uploaded on 04/22/2009 for the course BIO 309D taught by Professor Jessicawandelt during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Exam 3 Review - Chapter 5 (pages 86-92) 01/05/2008 17:44:00...

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