bio notes for test 3 - 28/04/2008 19:24:00 The Skeletal...

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Unformatted text preview: 28/04/2008 19:24:00 The Skeletal System The Skeletal System: Functions Support Movement Protection Blood cell production storage The Skeletal System: Structure Comprises three types of connective tissue o Bones o Ligaments o Dense connective tissue Join bone to bone Cartilage o Specialized connective tissue o Many functions Bone Structure o Specialized connective tissue o Most of the mass of bone consists of nonliving extracellular matrix o Contain several types of living bone cells, nerves, and blood vessels o Most contain both compact and spongy tissue Bone Structure: Compact Bone Very dense with few internal spaces Hard, outer layer of bone Osteon o Repeating structural unit of compact bone o Concentric rings of osteocytes surrounding a central canal Osteocytes o Mature bone cells o Trapped in lacunae (cavity) within hardened matrix o Connected to one another via membrane extensions Bone Structure: Spongy Bone Latticework of thin struts of bone with open areas between Braces bone from within Bone Structure: Periosteum Tough connective tissue layer that covers compact hone Contains: o Blood vessels o Nerves o Bone cells that function in bone growth and repair Bone Development Skeleton is first formed of cartilage Ossification: replacement of cartilage by bone Osteoblasts Bone-forming cells Secrete matrix components Growth plate (epiphyseal plate) Strip of cartilage cells that separates end of bone from shaft Bone lengthening Hormones Regulate Bone Growth Growth hormone Thyroid hormones Sex hormones iclicker From which endocrine gland/organ is GH released? o Anterior pituitary in response to a signal from the hypothalamus Bone Remodeling Bone is s dynamic tissue that undergoes constant replacement, remodeling, and repair Bone deposition and absorption o Osteoblasts: deposit bone o Osteoclasts: secrete enzymes that breaks down bone iclicker Which of the following is true? o When calcium is low, PTH is released Bone Remodeling: Regulation Stress stimulates osteoblasts activity Hormone regulation Parathyroid hormone Calcitonin Osteoporosis Progressive loss of bone mass Bone Repair Multistep repair of bone fractures Fibroblasts (connective tissue cells) /chondroblasts (one specific type of connective tissue cells - cartilage cells) Osteoblasts 1. Clot (hematoma) at site of break 2. Cartilaginous callus o bridge the gap where the break occurred 3. Bony callus The Human Skeleton 206 bones and connective tissues that hold them together...
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bio notes for test 3 - 28/04/2008 19:24:00 The Skeletal...

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