bio notes test 3 - The skeletal system Comprises three...

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The skeletal system Comprises three tyoes of connective tissue Bones Ligaments - dense connective tissue - Join to bone Catilage - specialized connective tissue - Many functions bone structure Specilized connective tissue Most of the mass of bones consists of nonliving extracelluler matrix Contain several types of living bone cells The Skeletal System: Functions The Skeletal System: Structure Bones Ligaments Cartilage Bone Structure Bone Structure: Compact Bone Very dense with few internal spaces Hard, outer layer of bone Osteon - repeating structure unit of compact bone - concentric ring of osteocytes surrounding a central canal Osteocytes - mature bone cells - Trapped in lacunae hardened matrix - Connected to one another via membrane extension Bone Structure: Spongy Bone Latticework of thin struts of bone with open areas between Brace bone from within Bone Structure: Periosteum
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Tough connective tissue layer that covers compact bone Contains - blood vessels - nerves - bone cells that function in bone growth and repair Bone Development Skelton is first formed of cartilage Ossification: replacement of cartilage by bone Osteoblasts - bone-forming cell - secrete matrix components Growth plate (epiphyseal plate) - strip of cartilage cells that separate end of bone from shaft - bone lengthening Hormones Regulate Bone Growth - growth hormone - thyroid hormone - sex hormone Bone Remodeling Bone is a dynamic tissue that under goes constant replacement, remodeling, and repair Bone deposition and absorption Osteoblasts: deposit bone Osteoclasts: breaks down bone Stress make bone grown, like jumping Hormone regulation - parathyroid hormone - calcitonin Osteoporosis Bone Remodeling: Regulation Stress make bone grown, like jumping Hormone regulation - parathyroid hormone - calcitonin Osteoporosis Bone Repair Multistep repair of bone fractures Clot (hematoma) Cartilaginous callus
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Bonny callus - fibroblasts/chondroblasts - Osteoblats The Human Skeleton 206 bones and connective tissues that hold them together 4 types of bones based on shape - long bone - short bone - flat bone - irregular bone Divided into two parts: Axial skeleton Appendicular skeleton Axial Skeleton Skull Vertebral column Ribs and sternum Axial Skeleton: Skull Cranial bones Facial bones Axial Skeleton: Vertebral Column Axial Skeleton: Ribs and Sternum 12 pairs of ribs Sternum (breastbone)
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Appendicular Skeleton Pectoral girdle Pelvic girdle Limbs Appendicular Skeleton: Pectoral Girdle Appendicular Skeleton: Pelvic Girdle Joints Classified based on components and structure Fibrous Cartilaginous Synovial Fibrous Joints Cartilaginous Joints Synovial Joints Hinge joint Ball-and-socket joint The Muscular System The Muscular System: Structure and Function Muscle: Characteristics Skeletal Muscle Origin Insertion Skeletal Muscle Synergistic muscles
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This note was uploaded on 04/22/2009 for the course BIO 309D taught by Professor Jessicawandelt during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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bio notes test 3 - The skeletal system Comprises three...

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