Chap 2.ppt - Chapter II Charts and Graphs Hayet Ben Hamida...

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1 Chapter II: Charts and Graphs Hayet Ben Hamida
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Objectives of this course 2 Construct a frequency distribution from a set of data Construct different types of quantitative data graphs Construct different types of qualitative data graphs Recognize basic trends in two-variable scatter plots of numerical data
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3 This chapter focuses on organizing ungrouped data into grouped data and displaying them graphically.
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Outline 2-1 FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS 2-2 QUANTITATIVE DATA GRAPHS 2-3 QUALITATIVE DATA GRAPHS 4 2-4 GRAPHICAL DEPICTION OF TWO- VARIABLE NUMERICAL DATA: SCATTER PLOTS
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2.1 FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS 5
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6 frequency distribution as tool for organizing and grouping data
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7
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Step 1: Decide on the number of classes. A useful recipe to determine the number of classes ( k ) is the “2 to the k rule.” such that 2 k > n . There were 80 vehicles sold. So n = 80. If we try k = 6, which means we would use 6 classes, then 2 6 = 64, somewhat less than 80. Hence, 6 is not enough classes. If we let k = 7, then 2 7 128, which is greater than 80. So the recommended number of classes is 7. Step 2: Determine the class interval or width. An approximation of the class width can be calculated by dividing the range by the number of classes, the number is rounded up to the next whole number) the Range= largest number - smallest numbers Step 3 : The frequency distribution must start at a value equal to or lower than the lowest number of the ungrouped data and end at a value equal to or higher than the highest number. Constructing a Frequency Table
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9 3. The lowest unemployment rate is 2.3 and the highest is 12.0 starts the frequency distribution at 1 and ends it at 13 1.
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