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Book Notes 1 - Chapter 1 Understanding Life-Span Human...

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Chapter 1: Understanding Life-Span Human Development 02:06 1.1 How should we think about development? Defining Development Development – systematic changes and continuities in the individual that occur between conception and death, or from “womb to tomb.” o Systematic – orderly, patterned, and relatively enduring o Continuities – ways in which we remain the same or continue to reflect our past selves. 3 Broad Domains: o 1. Physical Development – The growth of the body and its organs, the functioning of physiological systems, physical signs of aging, changes in motor abilities, etc. o 2. Cognitive Development – Changes and continuities in perception, language, learning, memory, problem solving, etc. o 3. Psychosocial Development – Changes and carryover in personal and interpersonal aspects of development, such as motives, emotions, personality traits, interpersonal skills and relationships, and roles played in the family and in society. Growth – The physical changes that occur from conception to maturity. Biological Aging – The deterioration of organisms (including humans) that leads inevitably to their death. Aging – Refers to a range of changes, positive and negative, in the mature organism. Conceptualizing the Life Span Periods of the Life Span Period of Life Age Range Prenatal period Conception to birth Infancy First 2 years of life Preschool period 2 to 5 or 6 years (some prefer to describe as toddlers children who have begun to walk and are age 1-3) Middle childhood 6 to about 12 (or until the onset of puberty) Adolescence Approximately 12-20 (or when the individual becomes relatively independent of parents and begins to assume adult roles) Early adulthood 20-40 years Middle adulthood 40-65 years Late adulthood 65 years and older
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Age grade (age stratum) – Each socially defined age group in a society. o Each age grade is assigned different statuses, roles, privileges, and responsibilities. Ex. Segregating children into grades in school based on age. o Each society has a different way of defining its own age grades. Age norms – Society’s way of telling people how to act their age. o Influence people’s decisions about how to lead their lives. o Social clock – a person’s sense of when things should be done and when he or she is ahead of or behind the schedule dictated by age norms. o Affect how easily people adjust to life transitions. We must view development in its historical, cultural, and sub-cultural context. Challenge in human development – to understand which aspects of development are universal and which aspects differ in different social contexts. Framing the Nature—Nurture Issue Nature-nurture issue – the question of how biological forces and environmental forces act and interact to make us what we are.
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