Genetics (student) cond - The Genetics of Child Development...

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The Genetics of Child Development I. GENETIC FOUNDATIONS A. The Genetic Code l. Chromosomes : "colored bodies" 2. Genes : multiple genes per chromosome; most genes lead to production of some protein. Genes composed of: 3. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) : genes differ in length of the segments of DNA --Double helix structure (twisted ladder) --Ladder rungs consist of pairs of nucleotides (nitrogen-based molecules) attached to the sugar units of the sides: Adenine (A) paired with Thymine (T) Cytosine (C) with Guanine (G) 4. Karyotype : depicts homologous pairs (except for the XY pair in males)--in humans, 22 of the pairs are known as autosomes , and l pair are sex chromosomes . 5. Gametes : sex cells (egg, sperm) 6. Mitosis : process by which DNA duplicates itself 7. Meiosis : process by which gametes, or sex cells are formed -- Crossing Over : pairs of chromosomes exhange corresponding segments to create new genetic combinations 8. Alleles : 1
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9. Genotype : one's genetic inheritance (e.g., BB or Bb or bb for eye color) h____zygous : having same two alleles for a trait (e.g., BB or bb) h______zygous : having two different alleles for a trait (e.g., Bb) 10. Phenotype : 11. Monozygotic Twins share a genotype (mono- = one zygote); dizygotic (fraternal) twins do not II. GENETIC INHERITANCE A. Autosomes : 1. Dominant Traits : supercede expression of recessive traits 2. RecessiveTraits : Exhibited only when inherit two alleles (only one allele makes one a carrier) 3. Co-dominance : With some traits, a combination of the alleles is phenotypically expressed, as with AB blood. Dominant Recessive Type A blood Type O Type B blood Type O 4. Polygenic inheritance : More than one gene influences expression of a trait, such as intelligence and height 5. : 2
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a. Dominant -- H_____________________ : occurs 35-40 years of age, causes brain deterioration loss of motor control, memory, personality, etc. -- Familial Alzheimer's -- Marfan's syndrome b. Recessive --_____________ -- Congenital deafness -- PKU, or ph______________________ (chrom. 12) 1 in l0,000 births lack the ability for the liver to produce the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, that converts a amino acid ph_____________ into t___________ toxic excess of phenylalanine builds up in nervous system, leading to symptoms by 3-5 months; death by age 4 if dietary restrictions not taken phenylalanine is amino acid in protein, and is found in milk products, eggs, meat, poultry, legumes, nuts, wheat & oats -- G_____________ (chr. 9, 17, 1—depends on enzyme missing) lack enzyme to convert g________ (from lactose in milk) into glucose. Buildup in tissues causes mental 3
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Detection prenatally + newborn -- Cystic Fibrosis (chrom. 7) most common genetic disease among _____________ (1 in 3000; 4-5% of Americans are carriers; caused by alteration in a single nucleotide, or one letter error) respiratory tract becomes clogged with mucus, increases risk of
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This note was uploaded on 04/22/2009 for the course PSY 333M taught by Professor Reeves during the Spring '09 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Genetics (student) cond - The Genetics of Child Development...

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