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Unformatted text preview: Object Knowledge Object I. Core Knowledge Theory
0. N_____________ 0. 1. S_______________ 0. 1. The brain is a product of n____________ s__________. Cognitive abilities that have an s__________. evolutionary purpose have evolved due to: 0. Examples: l__________, s_______________, l__________, distinguishing l_________________ items, identifying distinguishing h______________; n_________ h______________; 0. 2. Nativism: 1. Innate core principles that either supply basic knowledge about a domain (Spelke) OR provide the about m____________________ for development of reasoning m____________________ within that domain (Baillargeon) within 0. "...infants are not born with substantive beliefs about objects (e.g., intuitive notions of impenetrability, continuity, or force), ...but with intuitive highly constrained mechanisms that guide the development of highly infants' reasoning about objects." (Baillargeon) infants' 2. Object Knowledge is considered one of the core knowledge
areas for which infants have innate c____________ c____________ understanding understanding 2. 3. M_____________: cognitive skills are mutually 3. M_____________ independent, and subject to s____________ independent, impairment/enhancement. Separate r________________ impairment/enhancement. per system. per
1. P________________ m_______________ 2. P________________ m______________ 3. 4. Informal Theories of: 4. Informal
3. Object knowledge; causality; numeracy 4. Face recognition; expression of emotion; sense of self; theory of mind mind 4. P_______________ 5. B__________ 5. A______________________ categories; biological & behavioral 5.
traits traits Violation-of-E___________ Technique Violation-of-E___________ 1. Prediction is that infants will look LONGER at an u_________ or i___________ event (out of u_________ surprise) due to the event depicting a violation of surprise) their CONCEPTUAL knowledge A. Object Permanence Object --Baillargeon Minnie Mouse Experiment --Baillargeon Unveiling Study 2. 9.5 month olds realize a protuberance in blanket signals something underneath something 3. 12.5 month olds are sensitive to the size of the protuberance protuberance B. Occlusion/Barrier Experiments B. Occlusion/Barrier
4. Familiarization / Possible / Impossible 5. Spelke 6. http://web.uvic.ca/~lalonde/Psyc435A/object/ Baillargeon -Infants habituated to 180 no-block condition 4. Four & a half month olds surprised when screen rotates 180 with block (rather than 112 degrees) rotates 5. Six & a half month olds can detect an 80% violation (when screen rotates 157 degrees, through 80% of (when the box) the Schilling (2000) Schilling See also Bogartz et al. (2000), Cohen & Cashon (2000) 6. 4 m.o. exposed to ___ 180-no block familiarization trials looked longer at impossible 180-block trials—F_____________ EFFECT. longer (Also a f_________ effect if viewed 120 degree familiarization trials) (Also 7. Those exposed to ___ familiarization trials looked longer at 112
degree, possible event—N_____________ EFFECT. degree, 8. Six-month olds who saw 7 180-no block familiarization trials showed NO preference for either possible or impossible event. NO Rivera, Wakeley, & Langer (1999) 7. Hypothesized that if infants have innate core object knowledge, they shouldn’t need h_______________. knowledge, 8. Five-month old infants looked longer at 180 degree rotations in BOTH the possible (no block) and impossible rotations (with block) conditions. (with 9. They concluded that infants are showing a preference for
m____ m_____________, not object knowledge. m____ C. Collision/Causation Experiments C. Collision/Causation
10. Bug at bottom of ramp; cylinder rolls down to hit bug (or not). not). 11. Findings: Findings: 9. 2.5 month olds know bug should r_________________ 9. 10. 5.5-6.5 month olds who are familiarized to a medium cylinder
sending the bug to the middle of the track, realize a l______ sending (but not a s_______) cylinder should cause the bug to roll cylinder farther (Thus, not purely a novelty effect) farther Keen (2003) Berthier et al., 2000; Clifton et al., 1991; Mash et al., 2002, 2003 11.T___ and _____-year olds can’t find ball that rolls behind an
o________ barrier. o________ 12.Even with t______________ barrier with opaque doors, 2 year olds 12.
have problems have 13.Screen comes down a________ ball has rolled—2 year olds still Screen a________
have problems retrieving ball 14.However, 2-year olds do L_______ longer at an inconsistent effect longer 14.However, 6. How to explain discrepancies in infant & toddler data? data?
12. T____________________: R_________ vs. L________ L________ 13. Knowledge for infants & 2 year olds limited to a______________ violations (rather than a______________ p__________) p__________) 7. Main predictor/s of success in Keen?
14. A_____ 15. G______ behavior D. Support Experiments D. Support
8. 9. ___-mo-olds are think object will fall if it loses all contact with support (but contact on side okay) support _________ month olds understand that contact must be on top for support to be viable top ____-mo-olds understand that a significant portion must ____-mo-olds portion remain on the support remain
(from Hood, Carey & Prasada, 2000) 16.Baillargeon (1994) 10. So why do Infants look so smart (& toddlers so dumb)? 17.Infant studies reveal p___________ preferences
(F____________ or N___________), NOT conceptual (F____________ core knowledge core 18.Distinct systems of m_________________: 15. Differences in response mode—s__________ vs. 15. _____________ 16. Looking times reveal i_____________; reaching or pointing 16. based on e_________ knowledge based 17. P____________ vs. a_____________ understanding (Keen) understanding ...
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- Spring '09