Unformatted text preview: Views of Infant Capabilities 0. The baby, assailed by eyes, ears, nose, skin, and entrails at once, feels it all as one great blooming, entrails buzzing confusion. -William buzzing -William James James 1. …a lively, squirming bit of flesh, capable of making a few simple responses. few -John Watson Infant Perception Infant I. Experimental Techniques
• • H____________/D_____________:
H__________________ is the decline in response (or attention) to a persistent stimulus; D________________ is reinstatement of attention persistent 0. B. Other Techniques B. Other 2. Corneal reflection
1. Head Turning Task 2. Observe Reactions 0. Selective Looking or Sucking Paradigm Eye Movement Measurements 0. [ examples at http://cnx.rice.edu/content/m11175/latest/] II. Perceptual Development: Chemical & Somatosenses Somatosenses A. Taste 3. 11-13 weeks in utero, taste buds resemble that of an adult; 4500 taste buds at birth 4500 4. Fetus will swallow more amniotic fluid if tainted with
s_________ (DeSnoo, in Gandelman, 1992) s_________ 5. At birth, can discriminate s_________, s_______, & 5.
b______ tastes (and show preferences) b______ 6. Salty taste perception emerges around 4 months with sodium-sensitive proteins in taste buds sodium-sensitive 7. From Monell Chemical Senses Laboratories: First ___ years critical for determining taste preferences _____ exposures needed for people to like a new food that they don’t originally like B. Smell 8. Now believed that amniotic fluid flowing through nasal cavity helps trigger sense of smell in fetus (and amniotic cavity fluid can acquire smells of mother’s diet) fluid 9. Newborns discriminate smells of ammonia, rotten eggs, fish, butter, bananas, and vanilla (and show preferences fish, for pleasant smells) for 3. Newborns drawn to smell of breast milk 4. 5-day old infants turned head more toward a breast pad worn by own mother (over that of a stranger) 5. 6 days of age, breastfed babies can discern smell 5. of their mother’s milk of 6. F____________ more sensitive to odors C. Somatosenses touch, pain, heat, cold • Touch Many R_____________ based on touch are present in utero 2. Pain 2. Pain 7. Infants show signs of pain from having blood drawn, circumcision, etc. drawn, 8. Circumsized Infants show signs of pain (local anesthesia now strongly recommended), and anesthesia greater sensitivity to 4- and 6-month vaccinations greater 9. Pain sensitivity increases during first few months; immunization shots become more traumatic immunization 3. Heat, Cold, & Temperature Regulation 10.Infants not efficient at regulating body temperature —”sunbathing” position when hot III. Audition 10. Environmental sounds are audible in womb (based on miniature recording devices inserted in uterus just before miniature birth) birth) 11. From 6 months of pregnancy, fetus shows changes in movement & heart rate to external sounds movement 12. Fetal heartbeat decreases when mother speaks (Fifer & Moon, 1995) Moon, 11.Fetuses can hear mother’s heartbeat and blood flow; are comforted by these signs after birth flow; (Womb effect) 12.Sound l___________ evident at birth—newborns 12. will turn head toward a sound will 13.Hearing is best for _______ frequency sounds in infants and children; prefer female & children’s infants voices voices Music Perception 1. 4.5 month old infants listened longer to Mozart minuets with 1second pauses at natural boundaries (Krumhansl & Jusczyk, 1990) 2. 5-month olds habituated to a melody remained habituated to higheror lower-pitch melody (but not to mangled melody; Chang & Trehub, or 1977) 1977) Speech Perception 14.P____________ Discrimination 13. 1-4 month old infants discriminate consonants such as /p/ and /b/ (Eimas et al., 1971) as 14. By 6 months of age, babies discriminate all major sounds of world languages (Werker & Desjardins, sounds 1995) 1995) V__________ O__________ T_______ (VOT): length of length V__________
time between when air passes through lips & vocal cords time vibrate vibrate 15.C_____________ P____________: tendency to perceive
sounds as belonging in a phonemic class (even with sounds acoustic differences) acoustic 3. 1-month old infants treat sounds along the VOT graph as EITHER /p/ or /b/, showing same category boundaries as EITHER adults (Aslin, 1987; Kuhl, 1987) adults 4. Generalists to specialists: 6-8 month old infants in Englishspeaking environment could distinguish Hindi phonemes, but 11-13 month olds could not (Werker & Lalonde, 1988). We 11-13 lose ability to distinguish sounds not found in our own lose language language IV. Vision IV. A. Physiology: Eye A. Brain & Visual Pathways Brain What do Babies See?
B. Visual A________ 0. A______: the clarity with which the visual 0. image can be perceived at birth is around oneimage thirtieth of adult level. Visual acuity: 5. Newborns have approximately 20/___-20/___ vision
6. Clarity best for objects 8-20 inches away (e.g., caregiver’s face) 7. Acuity nearly adultlike by 11 months___ Visual acuity 15.Preferential looking technique Color Discrimination: Newborns perceive differences in brightness & color, but don’t have full color perception brightness C. Form Perception, Visual Tracking & Scanning
Newborns prefer large to small patterns. 1-year olds prefer more complex patterns. complex Visual Tracking & Scanning 16.At birth, infants can track a moving object (e.g., finger) across the visual field 17.Scanning is originally subject to the 17. E____________ effect E____________ 18.At 2 months, internal features attended to more D. Visual Preferences D. Fantz Study
Preference for Standard Faces Preference for Mother’s Face 16.Field et al., (1984): 48 infants, average age of 45 hours. Trapdoor opens to reveal mother’s face or hours. stranger’s face or both face and voice; Looking Time stranger’s measured. measured. 17. 17/24 looked longer at mothers face, 21/24 looked longer at face + voice. longer 18. Interaction: Females looked longer at face + voice. 19.Walton et al., (1992): Controlled for odor and facial expression by using faces on videotapes + neutral expression expression. Stranger & Mother matched for hair/eye expression. color, complexion, hairstyle. color, 0. Selective sucking task (Sucking for less than a second, other face appeared). second, 1. Mean No. of sucks for M’s face= 1_____, Mean No. of sucks for S’s face _____. Mean presentation time for M sucks = 61.25s, mean presentation time for S=46.50s 61.25s, 2. 11/12 infants sucked more to produce Mother’s face Preference for A______________ Faces Preference 19.Robust preference for attractive faces has been shown in infants (e.g. Langlois et al., 1991, 1987) shown as young as 3 days old (Slater et al., 2000) as 20.Preference for attractiveness surpasses preference for s_____________ preference 21.Due to formation of p__________ faces?
20. Images on the left side have been averaged from 32 human faces human Averaged Faces http://salmon.psy.plym.ac.uk/year1/psy150/parents-partners.htm 22.P____________ formation: based on an “averaging” of faces one has seen “averaging” 23.Infants experience individual exemplars of faces, which are then used to form an ‘average’ or which prototype face prototype Faces: A Summary 24.Averaged faces are judged as being more attractive than individual faces, possibly because attractive they are closer to the prototype they 25.Or, due to innate representation? E. Subjective Contours F. Depth Perception 26.1. B___________ D_________ (or Stereopsis)
21. Slightly different images fall on each eye Research Research 27.2-3 month old infants show a drop in h__________ on visual cliff h__________ 28.One to two months after crawling, infants will not cross deep side of visual cliff (usually 7-9 month cross olds) olds) 2. M____________ Cues 29.Linear Perspective 30.Texture Gradients I______________ Relative Size
22. Relies on size constancy Research: Monocular cues used 5-7 months 31.1. Granrud et al. (1984) found that 5-7 month old infants would reach for “__________” regions of a infants computer array, based on texture cues computer 32.2. Granrud, Yonas & Petterson (1984) • _____________ Perception A. Visual-Auditory Integration 33.1. Spelke (1979): 4-month olds look longer at a puppet who is jumping up & down at the same puppet ________ as the soundtrack ________ 34.2. Spelke & Owsley (1979): 3.5-month olds looked longer at mother when they heard her voice looked (and at father when they heard his voice). (and 3. Imitation of Faces 3.
B. Visual-H__________ Integration
23. 1. Meltzoff & Borton (1979): 1 month olds looked longer at smooth pacifier when sucking on a smooth pacifier (or at knobby when sucking on a knobby pacifier). knobby ...
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