Prenatal Devel. II - Teratogens & Clastogens I. Drugs A....

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Teratogens & Clastogens
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I. Drugs A. Legal Drugs & Medications
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Percentage of Women taking Drugs during Pregnancy
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1. Thalidomide Developed in Germany as an anti-convulsant, then as a tranquilizer 10,000 infants affected with phocomelia, largely in Europe Critical period: 20-36 days after conception
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blocks growth of blood vessels to parts of body undergoing rapid growth may affect DNA; children of thalidomide children have higher rate of limb deformities
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Standard Thalidomide symptoms heart defects eye, ear, facial deformities urogenital problems 40% mortality rate 5% of survivors were diagnosed autistic
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Early exposure affected arms; later exposure affected legs or hands, feet Currently approved by FDA for leprosy, treating growth of tumors in AIDs patients
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2. a. Tetracycline: stains teeth & bones, may affect growth of long bones b. Streptomycin can cause deafness in infants c. Insulin: Fluctuating glucose levels may be teratogenic, but insulin itself is not (see Diabetes, under Diseases)
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d. Lithium: congenital heart defects (Ebstein’s anomaly) may result from first trimester exposure (but not a strong teratogen) e. Penicillin & sulfa drugs thought to be safe
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3. Alcohol crosses placenta; equal concentration in fetal blood alcohol metabolism requires oxygen, deprives fetus of oxygen interferes with cell differentiation, compounded by nutritional deficits
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FAS Symptoms Facial Heart and kidney defects Abnormal curvature of the spine Deformed sternum and ribs
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FAS Facial Characteristics
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Normal Brain vs. FAS Brain
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increased risk of miscarriage, stillbirths, disturbances in placental functioning risk increases with dosage; 44% of women who drink heavily will have a child with FAS. Even 1-2 drinks/day can result in miscarriage or low birth weight
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Long-term Behavioral Consequences Delayed motor development Delayed language development Seizures Poor Impulse control Hyperactivity Inappropriate behavior
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Statistics FAS is leading cause of mental retardation in western countries Incidence has increased (perhaps
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This note was uploaded on 04/22/2009 for the course PSY 333M taught by Professor Reeves during the Spring '09 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Prenatal Devel. II - Teratogens & Clastogens I. Drugs A....

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