Study Guide for Exam II 2016.docx

Study Guide for Exam II 2016.docx - Study Guide for Exam II...

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Study Guide for Exam II Chapter 7.1, 7.2 and a bit of 7.3 Carbohydrates Functions of carbohydrates —energy source, storage, cell walls, exoskeleton, cell signaling Naming monosaccharides Aldehydes vs ketones Triose, tetrose, pentose, hexose Triose has 3 carbons Pyranose vs furanose Furanose: a five membered ring Pyranose: a six membered ring Hemiacetal, hemiketal, acetal, ketal and how they relate to structures of carbohydrates When aldehydes are attacked by alcohols, hemiacetals form When ketones are attacked by alcohols, hemiketals form Allow monosaccharides to form rings
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Enantiomers, diasteriomers, epimers, anomers Draw Fischer and Halworth projections of glucose, fructose, and ribose Understand L vs D —at second to last carbon: if OH is on right, D. if on left L. in fischer projection Understand α vs β Alpha—OH on 1’ carbon trans to CH2OH Beta—OH on 1’ is cis to CH2OH Chair conformation-what is it Disaccharides-name monosaccharides and their binding (linkage) for Maltose, Lactose, and Sucrose
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Polysaccharides General structure (monosaccharides, branching, connections) and function of glycogen, starch, cellulose, chitin Glycogen o Branched homopolysaccharide of glucose o Main storage in animals o Glucose Branch-points with ( 1 6) linkers every 8–12 residue Starch o Mixture of two homopolysaccarhides of glucose o Amylose is an unbranched polymer of ( 1 4) linked residues o Amylopectin is branched like glycogen but the branch-points with ( 1 6) linkers occur every 24–30 residues o Main storage in plants Cellulose o Unbranched homopolysaccharide of glucose o Glucose monomers form ( 1 4) linked chains o Hydrogen bonds form between adjacent monomers o Most abundant polysaccharide in nature, in wood/cotton Hard to digest Chitin o function Building block of exoskeletons of arthropods Cell wall of plants identical to that of cellulose except that glucose is replaced by N - acetylglucosamine Glycoproteins-amino acids that bind carbohydrates, function of carbohydrates
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Oligosaccharides that attached to proteins at the anomeric carbon to the Oxygen of Serine or threonine residues (O-linked) or the nitrogen of Asn (N-linked) Chapter 8 Nucleic Acids Functions of nucleotides (starts and ends the slides) and nucleic acids o Nucleotides Energy Enzyme cofactor Signal transduction o Nucleic acids DNA Mrna Ribozymes Protein synthesis Nucleotides vs nucleosides o Nucleotide has phosphate while nucleoside does not o Nucleotide: Draw nucleotide if structure of nitrogenous base provided Pyrimidines and purines o
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o o o C-2’endo and C-3’ endo, syn and anti as pertains to forms of DNA UV absorbance of nucleotides/DNA/RNA o 250-270 Differences between DNA and RNA, including which carbon loses OH Role of Methylation Structure of DNA and RNA o How backbone is linked together o Base pairing o 5’ and 3’ ends o Hydrogen bonding and base stacking hold structures together
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