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lecture_23_creationism - Carroll 2005 Cisvs.trans CIS...

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How do novel forms evolve while avoiding harmful pleiotropic effects? Carroll 2005
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Evolu9on of Gene Expression: Cis vs. trans CIS: changes in cis-regulatory elements lead to novel expression pattern TRANS: changes in protein structure lead to changes in where downstream gene is expressed
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Evolu9on of Gene Expression: Cis vs. trans -studies to date suggest that more changes between species are cis-regulatory -consistent with idea that pleiotropy constrains structural evolution
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Protein Evolu9on can s9ll be important, especially for genes with minimal pleiotropy Hoekstra et al, 2006 -changes in Mc1R PROTEIN SEQUENCE common source of color evolution in mammals
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Evolutionary processes and large-scale evolution •Natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, migration sources of MICROEVOLUTION, but can these processes explain taxonomic diversification (MACROEVOLUTION)? • left nagging doubts for early researchers studying evolution vs.
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Nagging Doubts by Early Researchers 1) How and why do organisms diverge and diversify? 2) How can we explain patterns of variation across species? 3) Can the evolutionary processes of mutation, selection, drift explain how we got millions of diverse species on earth?
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