Cutter_Lecture_03 - GeneticandPhenotypicVariation 1...

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Genetic and Phenotypic Variation 1
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Announcements Electronic chapters (1, 8 10) and article available on course website on Blackboard (UTOR ID login required) http://portal.utoronto.ca 2
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Sources of phenotypic variation Differences between individuals in a trait due to: Genetic differences Environmental differences Interaction between genotype and environment Poecilia reticulata (guppy) Genetic variation in male guppy coloration Onthophagus nigriventris (dung beetle) Well fed males grow horns 3
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What is genetic variation made of? Genetic polymorphism 2 or more alleles at a locus Locus = a site of interest on a chromosome Often, a gene 1 or more loci may affect any given trait Genotype = the combination of alleles across copies Haplotype = the combination of alleles across loci Diploids have 2 copies of each chromosome Homozygous or heterozygous at a given locus Dominant, recessive, additive (co dominant) alleles 4
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Genetic variation in a population For N diploid individuals in a population, 2* N copies of each locus Allele frequency = # copies of a given allele÷2 N Genotype frequency = # copies of a genotype ÷ N 5
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Hardy Weinberg Principle: Population sample The “A” locus with 2 alleles A population sample of 1000 individuals 400 have the A 1 A 1 = D genotype 400 have the A 1 A 2 = H genotype
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Cutter_Lecture_03 - GeneticandPhenotypicVariation 1...

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