Cutter_Lecture_02 - Theoriginsofgeneticvariation...

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The origins of genetic variation
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Announcements Textbook delayed at UT Bookstore (Jan 16 th ) Electronic chapters (1, 8 10) available online soon Students with financial need Limited number of free textbooks (hopefully!) Email me (PDF due 5pm Mon 1/12): 1 page essay describing your financial need and why you want to take this course (name + student number) Course website on Blackboard (UTOR ID login required) http://portal.utoronto.ca Waitlist students email Alethea Wang for copy of syllabus and lecture reading list ( alethea.wang@utoronto.ca ) Include “EEB318” in subject line!
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The origins of genetic variation Evolutionary change occurs within populations Leads to pattern of differentiation between reproductively isolated populations (species) For change to occur, there must be variation Where do the differences come from that allow change? Donax variabilis (bivalve) Domestic sheep
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Where do differences come from? Mutation New alteration of genetic sequence Recombination Rearrangement of genetic sequence into new combinations Gene flow Influx of new genetic sequences from other populations by migration Hybridization Transfer of genetic material from a different species Mutation is the ultimate source of genetic novelty
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Genetic basis to phenotypic variation Phenotype = observable trait of an organism Morphology (size, shape, color), behavior Genotype = genetic state of an organism For phenotypic evolution to occur, genotypic differences must affect the phenotype How can genotypic differences affect phenotype?
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The structure of a gene DNA RNA Protein transcription translation
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Molecular alphabets DNA has 4 nucleotide bases A = adenine T = thymine G = guanine C = cytosine RNA also has 4 nucleotide bases U = uracil (replaces T) Proteins have 20 amino acids Purines ( A , G ) Pyrimidines ( T , C )
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This note was uploaded on 04/22/2009 for the course EEB 318 taught by Professor Cutter during the Spring '09 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

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Cutter_Lecture_02 - Theoriginsofgeneticvariation...

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