lecture06 - Lecture6 GravityandtheRiseof ModernAstronomy...

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Lecture  6   Gravity and the Rise of  Modern Astronomy Galileo and Newton
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Galileo Galilei and the Telescope   1.  Galileo was born in 1564 and was a contemporary of  Kepler. He built his first telescope in 1609, using knowledge  from Holland.  (Remember:  Kepler published  “ The New  Astronomy”   the same year.)  2.  Galileo was the first to use a telescope to study the sky. He  made five important observations that affected the  comparison between the geocentric and heliocentric  theories. (a) Mountains and valleys on the Moon  (b) Sunspots (c) More stars than can be observed with the naked  eye (d) Four moons of Jupiter (e) Complete cycle of phases of Venus 
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Quizzes • Quiz 1 closes 11:55pm Thursday • Quiz 2 will be posted on Friday.
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Galileo's Telescopes
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Observing the Moon, the Sun, and the Stars 1. Though Galileo’s first three observations do not  disprove the geocentric model, they cast doubt  on its basic assumption of perfection in the  heavens  (e.g. sunspots) . 2. The existence of stars too dim to be seen with the  naked eye also cast doubt on the literal  interpretation of some Biblical passages  (e.g. that  the purpose of stars is to shed light on the Earth.  Stars invisible to the naked eye don't do that . ..). 
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Crater Clavius 
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A drawing by Galileo of Sunspots, summer 1612
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A modern image of the Sun  with a small telescope.
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The Pleiades: What Galileo saw, and a modern image. Only the 6 or 7 brightest  stars can be seen with the  naked eye in the Pleiades.
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1. In 1610 Galileo discovered that Jupiter had four  satellites of its own, now known as the  Galilean  moons  of Jupiter. 2. The motion of Jupiter and its orbiting moons  contradicted the Ptolemaic notions that the Earth  is the center of all things and that if the Earth  moved through space it would leave behind the  Moon.  Here was a miniature Copernican system! Published “Letters on Sunspots” in 1613.
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This note was uploaded on 04/22/2009 for the course AST 210 taught by Professor Prof.stefanmochnacki during the Fall '08 term at University of Toronto.

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lecture06 - Lecture6 GravityandtheRiseof ModernAstronomy...

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