Unformatted text preview: Black codes: First passed by certain southern states to underscore the unwillingness of
white Southerners to accept the full meaning of freedom for African Americans.
Designed to restrict the freedom of the black labor force and keep freed slaves close to
slave status. Special Field Order 15: (Famous: “40 acres and a mule”) January 1865, Gen. William
Sherman issued this order, which set aside certain plots of land in Georgia and South
Carolina for the settlement of freed people. This gave 40 acres per family and the loan of
mules from army. 14th Amendment: June 1866 congress passed this. It deﬁned national citizenship to
include former slaves and prohibited the states from violating the privileges of citizens
without due process of law. 15th Amendment: February 1869 congress passed this providing that the right of citizens
of the US to vote Shall not be denied or abridges on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. Essentially black suffrage. Compromise of 1877: an informal, unwritten deal that settled the disputed 1876 US.
Presidential election. Through it, Republican Rutherford B. Hayes was awarded the
White House on the understanding he would remove the federal troops that were
propping up Republican state governments in South Carolina, Florida and Louisiana.
Created a powerful federal government. Susan B. Anthony: Actively involved in the abolitionist movement, she was largely
involved in the antislavery and feminist movements. Founded the American Equal Rights
Association with other activists in 1866. Tenure of Ofﬁce Act: Passed by congress with other laws aimed at limiting President
Johnson’s power. Stated that any Ofﬁceholder appointed by the president with the
Senate’s advice and consent could not be removed until the Senate had approved a
successor. Thaddeus Stevens: Representative of Pennsylvania. He called for the conﬁscation of 100
million acres belonging to the wealthiest 10% of Southerners to be redistributed to black
and white yeomen and Northern land buyers. He believe the federal government would
be central in remaking of Southern society. Freedmen’s Bureau: Established by congress in March 1865, to provide food, clothing,
and fuel to destitute former slaves. It was in charge of supervising and managing all the abandoned lands in the south and the control of all subjects relating to refugees and
freedmen. Credit Mobilier: An affair relating to the election of 1872. The rapid growth of large—
scale, capital-intensive enterprises caused the Republicans to identify more with the
interest of business rather than the rights of freedmen or free labor. Republicans began ...
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- Fall '07