Slides J Women and Men Health.pptx - ESTROGENS AND PROGESTINS ESTROGENS AND PROGESTINS Hormones with multiple actions Promote female maturation Help

Slides J Women and Men Health.pptx - ESTROGENS AND...

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ESTROGENS AND PROGESTINS
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ESTROGENS AND PROGESTINS Hormones with multiple actions Promote female maturation Help regulate ongoing activity of female reproductive organs Estrogens affect bone mineralization and lipid metabolism Principal endogenous estrogen is estradiol; principal progestational hormone is progesterone
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THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE Follicular phase—first half of the cycle (days 1–14) Follicular phase—first half of the cycle (days 1–14) Luteal phase —second half of the cycle Luteal phase —second half of the cycle Full cycle typically takes 28 days Full cycle typically takes 28 days
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THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE Coordinating ovarian and uterine events Uterine changes are brought about under the influence of estrogens and progesterone Anterior pituitary hormones, follicle- stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) regulate the menstrual cycle
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ESTROGENS Biosynthesis and elimination Female Ovary is the principal organ Follicles, then corpus luteum Placenta produces large amounts pregnancy Major estrogen produced is estradiol Male Small amounts of testosterone converted into estradiol and estrone by the testes Peripheral tissues
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ESTROGENS Effects on primary and secondary sex characteristics Reproductive tract and secondary sex characteristics Physiologic processes related to reproduction (1) ductal growth in the breast (2) thickening and cornification of the vaginal epithelium (3) proliferation of the uterine epithelium (4) copious secretion of thickened mucus from endocervical glands
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ESTROGENS Metabolic actions Positive effect on bone mass Favorable effects on cholesterol levels Blood coagulation Adverse effects Endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma Promotes growth of existing breast cancer Ovarian cancer Cardiovascular events Nausea Adverse effects from use during pregnancy
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ESTROGENS Therapeutic uses Hormone therapy after menopause Female hypogonadism Acne Routes of administration Oral Transdermal Intravaginal Parenteral
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ESTROGEN (ETHINYL ESTRADIOL, ESTRONE, AND ESTRIOL) Increases thickness of endometrium  proliferation before ovulation Use estrogen alone with hysterectomy *Estrogen does not cause breast cancer—it only promotes the growth of a cancer that already exists, and then only if the cancer is estrogen receptor–positive. Benefit Cardio protective Decrease LDL, increase HDL Lower risk of MI in premenopausal Decrease in menopausal symptoms Stimulate clotting Block bone resorption; promote mineral deposition Help control acne Manage hot flashes and other menopausal sx Disadvantage Increased risk of seizures Can inhibit lactation Substrate of CYP 3A4 Increased risk of VTE (esp with smoking) ADR: Nausea, changes in menstrual flow, breast tenderness, headache, edema In men – feminization of genitalia and impotence
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved CHAPTER 26 Figure 26.3
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