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Unformatted text preview: organizing themselves around the spoils of federal patronage rather than preserving the Union of ending slavery. US vs. Cruikshank: 1876 this ruling curtailed black civil rights, and the Court restricted congressional power to enforce the Ku Klux Klan Act, by the understanding of the 14th Amendment only discrimination by states was protected civil rights but not discrimination by individuals or groups. Union League: This begun during the war as a Northern, largely white middle-class patriotic club, but after the war became the political voice of the former slaves. It brought out African American voters, instructed fieedmen in the rights and duties of citizenship, and promoted Republican candidates. Sharecropping: By late 1860’s sharecropping was the dominant form of working the land. It was a compromise between planters and former slaves. Freedmen families received one-third of the year’s crop if the owner lends supplies and 1/2 if use of personal supplies. Owning land or tenant farmng was much more desirable for freedmen. Ghost Dance: A tribal dance given to the Sioux tribe by “The Creator”. They believed that when the day of judgment came, all Indian peoples who had ever lived would return to their lost world and white peoples would vanish. Alice Cunningham Fletcher: One of the most influential interpreters of the cultures of living tribespeople. She was a pioneering ethnographer and in 1879 she lived with the Omaha tribe to learn something about their tribal organization, social customs, tribal rites, traditions and songs. Las Gorras Blancas: In the 18803 this band of agrarian rebels were destroying railroad ties and farm machinery and posting demands for justice on fences of the new Anglo farms and ranches throughout New Mexico. In 1890 these rebels transformed their group into a political organization known as “The People’s Party”. Dawes Severity Act: Passed by congress in 1887 to establish federal Indian policy. The act allowed the president to distribute land, not to tribes, but to individuals legally ‘severed’ fiom their tribes. This successfully undermined tribal sovereignty but offered little compensation. It forbad ANY tribal practices. Sand Creek: In 1864 this massacre took place in Colorado, when a disorderly group of 700 white men slaughtered 105 Cheyenne women and children and 28 men after their attempt to surrender. Yellowstone National Park: In 1872, congress named this the first national park. National parks were created initially to protect endangered species and to maintain water supplies in the West. ...
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