Chemistry Exam 3 Review

Chemistry Exam 3 Review - Laude's Chemistry 301 Exam 3...

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Laude’s Chemistry 301 Exam 3 Review 1. Theory: First Law of Thermodynamics (very easy) The first law says that energy in an isolated system (the universe) is constant.- energy is ALWAYS conserved. Gives a bunch of statements- one is true- the 1 st law. ∆U= ∆E= q+w 2. Definition: Enthalpy (pretty easy) Gives a series of statements and relate these terms to each other, one is true. Heat of reaction Exothermic- heat given off to surroundings- - - hot Endothermic- heat absorbed so surroundings are cold- + - cold Combustion in reactants= - Determined by 3 ways: -bond energy calculations for gases -heat of formation calculations -calorimetry calculation (mC∆T) Closed System-∆E (volume)= q (volume) Open System-∆H (pressure)= q (pressure) 3. Signs for thermodynamic quantities (medium) Just like quiz 5, gives a reaction or physical process and asks to tell the signs of ∆G, ∆S, ∆H, and w. Be the system Hint: the exact reaction for this is in worksheet 11. 4. Definition: state functions (tragically simple) Asks to tell the definition of a state function and distinguish state functions from other values. We want to measure the CHANGE in the state of the system. State functions- ∆G, ∆H, ∆V, ∆T, ∆S, ∆E, ∆P, ∆n NOT state functions- w, q
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5. Definition: Heats of formation (terribly easy) Gives a list of reactions and you tell which ones are for ∆H and which are not. Standard state elements like the reactant examples below always have ∆H = 0 because they are in standard state. Reactants are the only elements in standard state----------only products 6. Definition: Heat Capacity (medium) HEAT CAPACITY- a physical quality of a substance that measures how much heat per degree a compound can contain. How much heat a compound can take before changing temperatures. Water has a high heat capacity Metals have a low heat capacity Hint: be able to mess with the equation and compute quantities from it. 7. Calculation: Bomb Calorimeter (a killer)- work later in test Actually is a plug and chug Hints: -you don’t solve for ∆E, solve for something else. -pay attention to units- he kills with multiple different ones Stick in a bunch of numbers and find the unknown In bomb calorimeter equations the water and calorimeter make up the ∆E of the surroundings but the ∆E of the surroundings= -∆E of the system (or vice versa).
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