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9-18 - Anti-Apartheid Movement 1950-1961 I Defiance...

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Anti-Apartheid Movement 1950-1961
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I. Defiance Campaign (1952) A. The following unjust laws were breached & activists invited arrest Suppression of Communism Act Bantu Authorities Act Group Areas Act
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Suppression of Communism Act (1950): Outlawed the Communist Party, made it a crime to be a member of the Party or further the aims of communism. Outlawed all but the mildest forms of protest against the state and permitted govt. to outlaw any organization opposed to its policies.
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Bantu Authorities Act (1951) Established African Reserves known as “Homelands” Each African was assigned membership to a Homeland based on their ethnic origin (e.g Xhosa speaking people were assigned the Transkei and Ciskei) All political rights were restricted to the Homeland
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Africans lost their South African citizenship and were henceforth considered citizens of their ethnic homelands Africans had no political representation outside of the homelands & could not vote for the chiefs that “represented” them in the homelands
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B. How was the Defiance Campaign structured? ANC drafted a letter to D.F. Malan advising him of the date that that they wanted the laws repealed and that they would be holding demonstrations
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2 stage campaign First a small no. of well trained volunteers would break selected laws in a handful of urban areas. Each group of activists would have a leader who informed the police in advance of the act of disobedience. Second stage would be a mass defiance campaign with strikes & agitation across the country
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C. Results of the campaign Over the first 5 months of the campaign 8,500 people went to prison Membership of the ANC grew from 20,000 to 100,000 Stigma associated with imprisonment was removed—going to prison became a badge of honor
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II. National Congress of the People
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