homework 6 - Review Questions 1 The noble gases(group 18 or...

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Review Questions 1. The noble gases, (group 18 or 8A) 2. An ion is a charged particle. The sodium atom is neutral, but the sodium ion has a charge of 1+. Thus, one electron has been removed from the sodium atom to form the sodium ion. 3. Sodium metal is quite reactive; sodium ions are quite stable. 4. Both the sodium ion and the neon atom have 10 electrons. The sodium ion has 11 protons and the neon atom has 10 protons. 5. Chlorine atoms are single atoms of chlorine with seven valence electrons; chlorine molecules are two chlorine atoms held together by a covalent bond; chloride ions have an additional electron, giving them a -1 charge. Chlorine atoms are the most reactive, followed by chlorine molecules, and finally chloride ions, which are quite stable. 6. a. 3+ b. 2- c. 1+ d. 1- 7. a. group 2A b. group 5A c. group 7A 8. a. Hydrogen forms only 1 bond. b. Carbon generally forms 4 bonds. c. Oxygen forms 2 bonds. d. Fluorine generally forms 1 bond. e. Nitrogen generally forms 3 bonds. f. Bromine generally forms 1 bond. 9. C, N, O 10. Carbon (example: acetylene, HC C-H) and nitrogen (dinitrogen, N N) 11. Solids and liquids both exhibit interatomic forces. The interatomic forces in solids are strong enough to lock the atoms in place, while liquids are free to move. 12. Dispersion forces (N 2 ), dipole interactions (HCl), hydrogen bonds (H 2 O), and interionic forces (NaCl) 13. a. Phase change from the solid to the liquid state b. Phase change from the liquid to the gas state c. Phase change from the gas to the liquid state d. Phase change from the liquid to the solid state 14. a. melting b. vaporization
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15. Solid Liquid Gas melting vaporization Freezing condensation 16. a. Solution: a homogeneous mixture, the same throughout b. Solute: a substance dissolved in a solvent c. The dissolving substance in a solution, usually the one present in highest
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