Lec11Learn3 - Lecture 11 (2/26/09) Exam results histogram...

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Lecture 11 (2/26/09) Exam results histogram and median Phobia as a way of expanding our understanding of learning Learning as a way of expanding our understanding of phobia and how experience, behavior, and brain change
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0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 PERCENT 0 10 20 30 Count 0.0 0.1 0.2 Proportion per Bar
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Problems with an associative learning account Many individuals with phobia cannot recall a traumatic event This suggests that there are other forms of learning: Imitation and inference Many individuals experience trauma, yet do not develop phobias This suggests that individual differences play a role There are lots of dangerous objects/situations that do not become focus of phobias This suggests that some stimuli are more likely than others to become associated with fear On basis of extinction (CS and no US), phobias should extinguish. Why don’t they? This suggests individual differences in extinction and possibly other factors….
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Imitation Imitation: Is it innate? A study on the role of imitation in acquisition of fear in monkeys Lab-reared monkeys are not initially afraid of snakes; wild reared monkey are afraid. What would happen if a lab-reared monkey watched a frightened monkey interact with snakes? What would happen if lab-reared monkey watched a “fearless” monkey interact with snakes
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Fearful Model Calm Model Post-Observing Latency to Reach Across Box Holding Snakes or Toys 0 20 40 60 80 Real Snake Toy Snake Block Seconds Watching Calm Monkey Immunizes Against Fear of Snakes A study on imitation: Mineka & Cook (1986): Immunization against fear…. .
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Inference What is inference? How important is it? Does it play a role in phobias?
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Curious observation If imitation and inference also play a role in formation of phobias And emotional life is mediated by classical conditioning (not reason) Then it must be the case that imitation and inference work hand in hand with conditioning (albeit indirectly), e.g. watching another person encounter a fearful animal is like encountering it yourself, or inferring that a dog is dangerous is like getting bit by a dog, etc.
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It is obvious that not all events are equally likely to become the focus of a phobia or aversion. Anecdotal evidence
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Lec11Learn3 - Lecture 11 (2/26/09) Exam results histogram...

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