lec14Ambivalence09%26PunishA

lec14Ambivalence09%26PunishA - Lecture 14 Voluntary...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 14 (3/17/09) Voluntary behavior, self- harm, self-control, and the individual responsibility in a deterministic world • Self-harm: disease or reinforcement principles? • Delay of reward and ambiguous reward contingencies • A contingency based account of self-harm and self- control (delay functions) • Punishment (briefly) • If time: the question of individual responsibility Paradoxes of voluntary behavior: • Behaviors that are regretted, yet repeated – Poor health habits – Procrastination – Self-destructive drug use • Can we make sense of these behaviors? – Economists: “No” – Cognitive mistakes? This approach fails to explain “habitual” bad “habits” – Disease (compulsivity—non voluntary) – If laws of behavior exist, reinforcement principles should explain “irrational” voluntary actions Two features of reinforcement help explain self-destructive voluntary activities • Substances and activities that function as reinforcers are not necessarily good for us in all circumstances – Examples from the world of food (sweet, fatty, salty stuff) • The way in which the strength of a reinforcer changes in time leads to “impulsive” behavior—see next few slides • A corollary of the analysis that follows is that “contingencies of reinforcement” are ambiguous….to be explained How does delay to reward influence reward value? • We can use class data on preferences for $100 vs. a delayed $115 from Tuesday to answer this question Preference as Function of Delay Preference for $115 vs $100 (BC Psych 110, Spring 09) 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% All Students Preferred $115 48 Students Preferred $100 Now to $115 in 1 M $100 vs $115 now $100 now vs $115 in 1 month Preference as Function of Delay Preference for $115 vs $100 (BC Psych 110, Spring 09) 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% All Students Preferred $115 48 Students Preferred $100 Now to $115 in 1 M 86 students preferred $115 $100 vs $115 now $100 now vs $115 in 1 month $100 in 60 ms vs $115 in 61 ms Delay on Left Side (sec)...
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This note was uploaded on 04/23/2009 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 11002 taught by Professor Heyman during the Spring '09 term at BC.

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lec14Ambivalence09%26PunishA - Lecture 14 Voluntary...

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