lec16Mem09 - Lecture 16: Memory overview (3/24/09) Types of...

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Lecture 16: Memory overview (3/24/09) Types of memory Processes relevant to long-term semantic (explicit) memory Implications for eye-witness testimony (see text)
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Long-Term Memory Explicit: Intentional Implicit: unintentional influence of past Sensory Memory Working and/or STM Epi- sodic Sem- antic Proced- ural Basic types of memory: Schematic Overview.
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iClicker On basis of Alan Alda film clip (picnic story), what is likely the more reliable form of memory? A = episodic B = semantic What is the most important factor in forgetting? A = interference (new material confuses memory of old material) B = decay (in time “memories” fade)
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Sensory memory Based on very brief presentations of stimuli, e.g., 1/20 th of a second This leads to a brief periods (e.g., about 1 sec) during which certain features of the event can be recalled. Visual features (“iconic” memory) Auditory features (“echoic” memory) See Sperling experiment in text Sensory memory provide a concrete albeit limited response (“pictures” and “sounds”)
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Short-term memory/Working memory Material that is encountered and kept in mind briefly (STM) or is retrieved from long-term memory and kept in mind briefly, a “mental workplace” (working memory) Encoding is primarily acoustic – Visually presented information elicits “acoustic” errors – Conrad (1964) study: saw “B” but recalled “V” (sound alike error), but few visual errors: rarely substituted “F” for “E” (look alike error) Duration of material in STM: lasts about 20 seconds if not reinforced by rehearsal Amount of material that can be “kept in mind” about 5-7 “chunks”
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STM: Temporal limits* Subject briefly exposed to 3 letter string, e.g., “TKL” followed by an interference task that prevents rehearsal Ability to repeat string drops to close to zero by 20 seconds. F 8.4 Adapted from Peterson, L. M., & Peterson, M. J. (1959). Short-term retention of individual verbal items. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58, 193–198
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Storage capacity is best measured in “chunks” N, B, W, P, R, B, I , M, C, O, M, I , A, H, M, B, B, M, C, B NCO, MPH, BMW, BC, RBI, IBM, MBA
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lec16Mem09 - Lecture 16: Memory overview (3/24/09) Types of...

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