Lec17EatingC - Lecture 17 (3/31/09): Motivation &...

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Motivation Some general considerations Eating Ultimate motives More immediate biological influence The role of learning The recent rise in obesity (Thursday)
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Motivation Motivation is defined in the dictionary (Oxford) as the stimulus or state or cause that drives action toward a goal. The factors that give purpose or direction to human or animal behavior. The reason for acting in a particular way. But virtually all psychological phenomena are motivated Instincts Conditioned responses Reinforced behavior
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Some limitations Text (Gazzaniga & Heatherton’s) list of motivational topics---very long and diverse Class topics
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Some general distinctions Proximal and ultimate causes Eating Sex Thus, we can talk about motivation at different levels of generality Logical possibility that proximal and ultimate causes are at odds
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Order of topics on eating The ultimate goals of eating Proximal biological controls Role of learning Economic factors (price, availability) Recent national changes in body weight
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Questions that we will address: How do we know what to eat? Why do some people like aversive foods, such as chili peppers? Why is obesity on the rise?
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Eating: Ultimate issues Cells require energy and essential biochemicals for their structural properties: glucose, fats, and vitamins But cells can’t move and food exists in many forms, not just glucose and fat. Thus, energy and vitamins have to be extracted from environment, processed, and delivered Solution: send out for supplies and metabolize them into correct form
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The conventional approach to motivation: homeostasis A classic example: body temperature and feeling cold and hot If cold, reflexive shivering and decreased blood flow to the skin, if hot start then reflexive sweating Discomfort reinforces actions that provide protection from the cold
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The homeostatic view of eating Low on Energy/Ess- ential Amino Acids Hunger Eat Correct Deficits Stop Eating
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Lec17EatingC - Lecture 17 (3/31/09): Motivation &...

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