lec18Eating2a - Lecture 18 Eating the role of experience...

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Lecture 18 (4/02/09): Eating, the role of experience, and recent increases in body weight The role of experience, learning and biases Factors that influence obesity The influence of eating and biological control factors
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Fuel/Immed- iate Use Glycogen/Short- Trm Store/Liver Fat/Long-Trm Store Eat Glucose & FAT Glucose Fatty Acids Glucose Fuel Fuel Fuel Digestion Simplified picture of food metabolism: In addition digestion transforms proteins into amino acids that are used to build cells or if no immediate need then stored as fat. Fuel use is prioritized: brain is "first in line." If brain has enough fuel then muscles get fuel. If enough fuel for immediate needs, then glucose is stored in short-term storage (liver). If short-term storage is full then glucose is transformed into fat and stored in fat cells. Fat goes directly into fat cells. Number of fat cells remains more or less constant but can greatly increase in size. When you wake up, you typically start drawing on your long-term storage of fat cells.
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In addition food is reinforcing (supports preferences) Why: food has motivational value that is not tied to nutritional needs so that it can be consumed and “stored” for the future It will support new behaviors that might be needed if old ways of getting food fail (i.e., supports learning) There is another basic reason why is food reinforcing: Why is food reinforcing but oxygen is not?
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Some observations concerning role of learning in eating Illness and taste aversion (and taste/illness “preparedness”) – Animals studies Taste aversion Compensatory eating for specific nutritional deficits – Cancer patient observations & studies (Bernstein & Webster, 1985) & marijuana treatment Familiarity (and neophobia?) Anecdotal evidence: “My mom is a really good cook,” he said. “She cooks everything, but they cook different over there. They use different recipes to cook chicken and beef. Everything is cooked differently.” – Studies with 2-year olds: “I don’t like it; I never tried it” (Birch et al., 1982, see next slide)
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Preference for Most Familiar Item in Two-Year Old Children*
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lec18Eating2a - Lecture 18 Eating the role of experience...

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