MotivationDigital systems are widely used for control,itititt titcommunication, computers, instrumentation, etc.In many such applications of digital systems, signalis not available in digital formNeed for converting an analog signal to digitalformA digital communication system is used to transmitmessages which are in the form of analog signals.This requires an A/D converter at the transmitting endand D/A converter at the receiving end.M. Pedram USC/EE
Analog to Digital ConversionThe A/D process involves four process:SamplingHoldingQuantizingEncodingSamplingandholdingoperations are done simultaneouslyinsample‐and‐holdcircuitsample and holdQuantizingandencodingoperations are donesimultaneously usinganalog‐to‐digital converter(A/Dconverter or ADC)M. Pedram USC/EE
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Digital‐to‐Analog ConvertersThe input to a D/A converter is anN‐bitbinary signal, available in parallel form:Digital InputAnalog OutputThe analog output voltage of D/Aconverter is related to the digital input by:12210...NNbbb b b−−