Lecture Review 1 - BIO311C (2008) Introductory Biology I...

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Unformatted text preview: BIO311C (2008) Introductory Biology I Lecture Review 01 (01/14-01/23) 1. Biological Hierarchy 2. Characteristic of living things (1) 7 major characteristics of living organisms ( UNITY ): a. all living things consist of: CARBOHYDRATES, LIPIDS (fats), PROTEINS and NUCLEIC ACIDS b. Organisms consist of single or multi-cells. c. Cells are constructed of the same kinds of atoms and molecules according to the same natural laws of energy (thermodynamics). Living things are complex AND organized d. Organisms acquire and use energy and materials to survive a e. In all livin nd reproduce. g things, heritable information is encoded in DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). f. Reproduction, growth and repair are the basis for cell division. 1 (3) The most recent change to the science of taxonomy has been to add a super-category even higher than Kingdom Domain (Domain -> Kingdom -> Phylum -> Class -> Order -> Family -> Genus -> Species) (4) Four Kingdom: i. protists - engulf ii. plants absorb light energy iii. animals - eat iv. fungi - decompose (5) Most biologists do not consider viruses to be living things because they do not fulfill the criteria to define a living thing. It is probably more accurate to consider them active or inactive rather than alive or dead. Self-organizing structures 3. PROKARYOTES and EUKARYOTES (1) Three domains: (Archaea + Bacteria) + Eukarya = Prokaryotes + Eukaryotes (2) There are several significant differences between eukaryotic and prokaryo Prokaryotes and eu tic cells. (3) karyotes differ physically in the following ways out z EIR DNA . z On EMBRANE . NELLES (4) T onoplast, Cell wall, Plasmodesmata z Prokaryotes and eukaryotes differ in SIZE . A prokaryote is ab the size of a eukaryotic organelle. Cells differ in the SHAPE OF TH Prokaryote DNA is CIRCULAR Eukaryotic DNA is LINEAR . ly eukaryotes have a NUCLEAR M z Only eukaryotes have MEMBRANE BOUND ORGA BO H types of cells and ALL LIVING THINGS have ribosomes . (5) In plant cells but not animal cells: Chloroplasts, Central vacuole and t 2 4. Atom ms, the basic structural units of matter, are composed of still smaller particles space....
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Lecture Review 1 - BIO311C (2008) Introductory Biology I...

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