Lecture Review 2 - BIO311C (2008) Introductory Biology I...

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BIO311C (2008) Introductory Biology I Lecture Review 02 (01/25-01/30) Organic compounds, carbohydrates, lipids 1. Organic compounds (1) Organic compounds: Compounds that contain carbon (2) Functional groups are atoms or clusters of atoms that give molecules their distinct properties. All of them are hydrophilic groups. Name of group Hydroxyl group Carbonyl group Carboxyl group Formula -OH -CO -COOH Example Name of compounds Alcohols Ketone, Aldehyde Carboxylic acids Common properties a. Polar - electronegative oxygen b. Attracts water molecules a. Structural isomers a. Acidic b. Covalent bond between c. Oxygen and hydrogen very polar Name of group Amino group Sulfhydryl group Phosphate group Formula -NH 2 -SH -PO 3 Example Name of compounds Amine Thiols Organic phosphates Common properties a. Base a. Disulfide bond (two –SH) stabilize protein structure a. Negatively charged ion b. Transfer energy c. ATP 1
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(3) Isomers: molecules that have the same molecular formula , but have a different arrangement of the atoms in space. a. Structural isomers : the atoms are arranged in a completely different order. b. Geometric isomers : compounds have different spatial arrangements of the atoms around the double bonds. ( cis -longhorn, trans -not longhorn ) c. Enantiomers : compounds are complete mirror images of each other, much as one's left and right hands are "the same" but opposite. (4) Dehydration synthesis (remove water) : Organic molecules are synthesized by the removal of water. These reactions are called “condensation” or “dehydration.” (5) Hydrolysis (break apart with water) : These are the reactions that cause large molecules to break apart into smaller ones. (6)
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This note was uploaded on 03/19/2008 for the course BIO 311C taught by Professor Satasivian during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas.

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Lecture Review 2 - BIO311C (2008) Introductory Biology I...

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