Lecture review 4 - BIO311C (2008) Introductory Biology I...

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BIO311C (2008) Introductory Biology I Lecture Review 04 (02/08-02/13) Cells – Organization 1. Cell theory: (1) All organisms are composed of one or more cells. (2) Cells are the basic living unit of organization of all organisms. (3) All cells come from other cells. 2. Common features of all cells: (1) PLASMA MEMBRANE : A boundary that contains lipid bilayers and separates the inside of the cell from the rest of the world (2) CHROMOSOMEs : A set of genes ( DNA ) Æ In eukaryotes, DNA is confined within the nucleus (membrane-enclosed) Æ In prokaryotes, DNA is located in nucleoids (no membrane) Æ All cells have one or more chromosomes. (3) CYTOPLASM : A cell body contains a lot of organelles and cytosol (internal fluid) Æ All cells have ribosomes . (4) Synthesize ORGANIC MOELCULES 3. Cells usually have to be observed with a microscope . ± Light microscope Æ Magnification of cell and structures Æ Can use live specimens Æ Resolution is limited (>2 μ m) ± Electron microscope Æ High resolution of specimens (2nm) Æ Have to use dead specimens Æ Two major types: Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) 4. Three domain model (1) Three domains: Eukaryotes, Bacteria, Archaea (2) Much of life has been about single celled organisms (3) Tree of life: based on comparisons of rRNA genes 1
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5. PROKARYOTES and EUKARYOTES (1) Three domains: (Archaea + Bacteria) + Eukarya = Prokaryotes + Eukaryotes (2) Prokaryotes and eukaryotes differ physically in the following ways z Prokaryotes and eukaryotes differ in CELL SIZE . A prokaryote is about the size of a eukaryotic organelle. It’s limited by metabolic requirements. z
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This note was uploaded on 03/19/2008 for the course BIO 311C taught by Professor Satasivian during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Lecture review 4 - BIO311C (2008) Introductory Biology I...

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