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Nervous System Notes - BIOS301L(2007 Molecules to Organisms...

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BIOS301L (2007) Molecules to Organisms Lecture Review 06 (08/01-08/03) 1. Nervous system (1) There are 2 types of cells in neuronal tissue Glial Cells (90% of nervous tissue) Neurons (10% of nervous tissue) (2) Glial Cells a. Glial cells are the support cells for the neurons b. Glial cells provide support, nutrition and protection for neurons (3) Neurons a. Neurons come in a variety of shapes and sizes b. Neurons (also known as neurones and nerve cells ) are electrically excitable cells in the nervous system that process and transmit information. c. Neurons are typically composed of a soma , or cell body, a dendrite and an axon . The soma is the central part of the neuron. It contains the nucleus of the cell, and therefore is where most protein synthesis occurs. The dendrites of a neuron are cellular extensions with many branches. This is where the majority of input to the neuron occurs. The axon is a finer, cable-like projection which can extend tens, hundreds, or even tens of thousands of times the diameter of the soma in length. The axon carries nerve signals away from the soma The axon terminal is a specialized structure at the end of the axon that is used to release neurotransmitter chemicals and communicate with target neurons.
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