LECTURE 1 CMOS CIRCUITS AND LAYOUT

LECTURE 1 CMOS CIRCUITS AND LAYOUT - Introduction to CMOS...

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Introduction to CMOS VLSI Design Lecture 1: Circuits & Layout David Harris Harvey Mudd College Spring 2004
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1: Circuits & Layout Slide 2 CMOS VLSI Design Outline q A Brief History q CMOS Gate Design q Pass Transistors q CMOS Latches & Flip-Flops q Standard Cell Layouts q Stick Diagrams
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1: Circuits & Layout Slide 3 CMOS VLSI Design A Brief History q 1958: First integrated circuit – Flip-flop using two transistors – Built by Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments q 2003 – Intel Pentium 4 μ processor (55 million transistors) – 512 Mbit DRAM (> 0.5 billion transistors) q 53% compound annual growth rate over 45 years – No other technology has grown so fast so long q Driven by miniaturization of transistors – Smaller is cheaper, faster, lower in power! – Revolutionary effects on society
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1: Circuits & Layout Slide 4 CMOS VLSI Design Annual Sales q 10 18 transistors manufactured in 2003 – 100 million for every human on the planet 0 50 100 150 200 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 Year Global Semiconductor Billings (Billions of US$)
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1: Circuits & Layout Slide 5 CMOS VLSI Design Invention of the Transistor q Vacuum tubes ruled in first half of 20 th century Large, expensive, power-hungry, unreliable q 1947: first point contact transistor – John Bardeen and Walter Brattain at Bell Labs – Read Crystal Fire By Riordan, Hoddeson
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1: Circuits & Layout Slide 6 CMOS VLSI Design Transistor Types q Bipolar transistors – npn or pnp silicon structure – Small current into very thin base layer controls large currents between emitter and collector – Base currents limit integration density q Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors – nMOS and pMOS MOSFETS – Voltage applied to insulated gate controls current between source and drain – Low power allows very high integration
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1: Circuits & Layout Slide 7 CMOS VLSI Design MOS Integrated Circuits q 1970’s processes usually had only nMOS transistors – Inexpensive, but consume power while idle q 1980s-present: CMOS processes for low idle power Intel 1101 256-bit SRAM Intel 4004 4-bit μ Proc
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1: Circuits & Layout Slide 8 CMOS VLSI Design Moore’s Law q 1965: Gordon Moore plotted transistor on each chip – Fit straight line on semilog scale – Transistor counts have doubled every 26 months Year Transistors 4004 8008 8080 8086 80286 Intel386 Intel486 Pentium Pentium Pro Pentium II Pentium III Pentium 4 1,000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000 10,000,000 100,000,000 1,000,000,000 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Integration Levels SSI : 10 gates MSI : 1000 gates LSI : 10,000 gates VLSI : > 10k gates
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1: Circuits & Layout Slide 9 CMOS VLSI Design Corollaries q Many other factors grow exponentially – Ex: clock frequency, processor performance Year 1 10 100 1,000 10,000 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 4004 8008 8080 8086 80286 Intel386 Intel486 Pentium Pentium Pro/II/III Pentium 4 Clock Speed (MHz)
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1: Circuits & Layout Slide 10 CMOS VLSI Design CMOS Gate Design q Activity: – Sketch a 4-input CMOS NAND gate
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This note was uploaded on 03/19/2008 for the course EE 577B taught by Professor Bhatti during the Spring '08 term at USC.

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LECTURE 1 CMOS CIRCUITS AND LAYOUT - Introduction to CMOS...

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