Chapter 4.pdf - Chapter 4 Phenomena Phenomena Many...

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Chapter 4: Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry Chapter 4: Phenomena Phenomena: Many different reactions are known to occur. Scientists wondered if these reactions could be separated into groups based on their properties. Look at the reactions below and divide the reactions into groups of similar reactions. Be able to state what property(s) you used to group them. Can any of the reactions be put into multiple groups? Hint: It might be helpful to print the reactions out so that you can move them around. a) H + (aq) + OH - (aq) Æ H 2 O(l) b) NH 3 (aq) + HCN(aq) Æ NH 4 CN(aq) c) Fe 3+ (aq) + e - Æ Fe 2+ (aq) d) HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) + KOH(aq) Æ KC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) +H 2 O(l) e) 3Ca 2+ (aq) + 2PO 4 3- (aq) Æ Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (s) f) HBr(aq) + LiOH(aq) Æ LiBr(aq) + H 2 O(l) g) AgNO 3 (aq) + NaCl(aq) Æ AgCl(s) + NaNO 3 (aq) h) 2H 2 O(l) + 2e - Æ H 2 (g) + 2OH - (aq) i) Sr(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2NaOH(aq) Æ Sr(OH) 2 (s) + 2NaNO 3 (aq) j) Cu + (aq) + e - Æ Cu(s) k) H 2 SO 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l) Æ SO 4 2- (aq)+ 4H + (aq)+ 2e -
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2 Electrolytes Molarity and Dilutions Precipitation Reactions Acid Base Reactions Oxidation Reduction Reactions Big Idea: Reactions can be broken down into subgroups. Three types of reactions are precipitation (a solid is formed from 2 aqueous solutions), acid/base (salt and H 2 O are produced), and oxidation/reduction (e - are transferred). Many reactions involve species that are in solution. Molarity (mol per liter) is used to describe the concentration of species in a solution. Chapter 4 Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry
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Chapter 4: Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry Electrolytes 3
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Chapter 4: Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry Electrolytes 4 Solid Dissolve Not Dissolve Form Ions Stays Together as a Molecule
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Chapter 4: Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry Electrolytes } Electrolyte: A substance that, in solution, is present as ions. } Strong Electrolyte: A substance that is fully ionized in solution. } Weak Electrolyte: A substance that is only partially ionized in solution } Nonelectrolyte: A substance that does not form ions in solution. } . 5 Examples: Ionic solids that are soluble in water and acids. Note: Electrolyte solutions conduct electricity. Example: Molecular compounds that are not acids.
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Chapter 4: Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry Molarity and Dilutions 6 Volume Grams Moles Moles Molar Mass Atoms/Molecules/etc N A Chemical Formula or Equation Molarity
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Chapter 4: Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry Student Question Molarity and Dilutions If the molarity of a solution of calcium chloride is known. What would you have to do to the molarity of the calcium chloride solution to get the molarity of the chloride ions in solution? a) It is the same b) Multiply the molarity by 2 c) Divide the molarity by 2 d) Multiply the molarity by 3 e) Not enough information given 7
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Chapter 4: Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry Molarity and Dilutions The steps to make a solution of known molarity.
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